STAT-LIT NEWS IN
Who first used the phrase "statistical
What new QR/QL textbooks were released
Who asked "What can go wrong with QL
programs?" and provided answers with with real examples?
Who claimed that 'statistical illiteracy'
is "a consequence of the different visions about statistics"?
What statistical group gave their definition
of "statistical literacy"?
Who said "the purpose of statistical literacy at school" is to prepare graduates "to
participate in social decision making"?
Who made 'statistical literacy' a #1 goal
of statistics education?
Who said, "QL-friendly courses will
likely replace courses such as college algebra that are now being
used ineffectively as general education courses"? In
what context was it said?
What college agreed with its math
department to drop algebra from the list of math courses that
students can use to fulfill their numeracy requirements for general
that "the inherent ambiguity" of 'statistical literacy',
'statistical reasoning' and 'statistical thinking' "makes
them unsuitable as learning goals for statistics education"?
Who analyzed 229 percentage graphs in USA Today
In what group did 52%
"strongly agree" that "describing & comparing percentages in tables
& graphs is valuable for citizens"?
I didn't really realize how important statistical literacy is until I
took this course. Even though I really don't like math, I may consider
another statistics course just to get full understanding and better skilled.”
Capella student comment in
Isaacson's 2006 ASA
"Statistical literacy is the meeting of the data and chance curriculum
and the everyday world."
The purpose of statistical literacy at school is to prepare graduates "to
participate in social decision making." Jane Watson
Statistical Literacy at School
"The Mathematics and Statistics Department at Arizona State University
removed college algebra from the list of courses students
can use to fulfill their numeracy requirements for general studies.
The department has taken this action as it believes students requiring only
one mathematics course in their college experience should be introduced to
mathematics that is more applied in nature. We further believe any
student taking college algebra should have every intention of taking another
MAA SW News
"College and university mathematics will need to change pedagogical
approaches if it is to successfully lead QL education. If it does not, then
I believe QL is a major threat to collegiate mathematics because QL-friendly
courses will likely replace courses such as college algebra that are now
being used ineffectively as general education courses, and a major fraction
of collegiate mathematics enrollments is in college algebra and other
2006 ASA paper
FIRST STATISTICAL-LITERACY TEXTBOOK
1979 textbook described statistical literacy as the ability to read and
interpret data. "Rather than designing
an experiment and collecting and analyzing the data, students are more
likely to read the results of an experiment and need to interpret those
results." Read the
preface and the
table of contents.
The phrase 'statistical literacy" was the title of his 1979 textbook.
This is a very early use of 'statistical literacy' in statistical
education. See Haack's
1980 articles in
Investigate his background with the
Note his focus on treating statistics as a language.
'Statistical literacy' is
used "to emphasize that the purpose of the school curriculum ... is to
prepare statistically literate graduates who are prepared to participate
in social decision making." "Every one needs to be able to
question statistical claims." "Statistical literacy is the
meeting of the data and chance curriculum and the everyday world."
Bracey hopes this book will "make non-researchers wiser
consumers of the statistics and data they find not only in research
articles, but, especially, in op-ed pieces and commission reports... "
See Bracey's 32 principles of data interpretation.
A must-read for all those interested in statistical literacy.
Summarizes the mathematical skills necessary
to be quantitatively literate. Presents reviews of seven
stand-alone Q/L courses and 11 interdisciplinary
and inter-departmental programs.
Includes historical reviews and essays on assessment. Excellent
survey articles by Susan Ganter and William Briggs.
Jane Miller has a
second great book
on the effective presentation of quantitative information involving
multivariate analysis. Presents key principles, useful
tools and varied applications. "This is a terrific book..." James Trussell, Princeton.
Reviewed in The American Statistician 2006, vol. 60, no. 2, pp.
203 - 204.
Statistical Evidence in Medical Trials: Mountain or Molehill, What Do
the Data Really Tell Us? by Stephen Simon. Ch 1: Apples or Oranges:
The Selection of the Control Group. Ch 2. What was Left Out:
Exclusions, Refusals and Dropouts. Ch 3. Mountains or Molehills:
The Clinical Importance of the Results. Ch 4. What Do the Other
Witnesses Say: The Importance of Corroborating Evidence. Ch 5. Do
the Pieces Fit Together? Systematic Overviews and Meta-Analyses.
Ch 6. What do all these numbers mean? Ch 7. Where is all the
2012 Review Website.
Stephen Simon] is a "lucid, well-written and entertaining text that
addresses common pitfalls in evaluating medical research.
Including extensive use of publications from the medical research and a
non-technical account of how to appraise the quality of evidence
presented in these publications, this book is ideal for health-care
professionals, students in medical or nursing schools, researchers and
students in statistics, and anyone needing to assess the evidence
published in medical journals." "Revolutionary" -- "a statistics
book without numbers."
NEW QR BOOKS
the Numbers Say
"Field Guide to Mastering Numbers" by Derrick
Niederman and David Boyum. "This duo continues the noble cause of
dispelling math phobia, especially its application in the vital
life-skills department. all people need to be fluent in two
languages–words and numbers. Yet
our schools do not teach and our students do not learn how to be
quantitatively literate. This book demonstrates what traditionally
is not taught." Interview.
Abramson and Mathew Isom
(Arizona State) use this in a
first year math
Goal: "to enhance students
level of quantitative literacy and understanding numeracy in context.
Development of the students ability to use the words from mathematics in
context to form an argument was an essential skill."
Greg Langkamp and
Joseph Hull (1st ed. 2006).
Analyzes "real environmental information and problems, using
mathematics accessible to students with an intermediate algebra
background." Topics: "basic numeracy, function modeling,
difference equation modeling and elementary statistics."
By Alicia Sevilla and Kay Somers (Moravian College). Helps students
apply mathematical reasoning in daily life. Topics: Numerical Reasoning
(functions, models, logs, indexes), Logical Reasoning (Decision making,
inductive,, deductive) and Statistical Reasoning (conditional
Vol. 20, Num. 3 (2005):
Darrell Huff and
Fifty Years of How to Lie with Statistics by Steele. Lies,
Calculations & Constructions: Beyond How to Lie with Statistics by
Joel Best. Lying with Maps by Monmonier.
Confuse with Statistics: The Use and Misuse of Conditional
Probabilities by Krämer & Gigerenzer.
How to Lie
with Bad Data by De Veaux & Hand.
Accuse the Other Guy of Lying with Statistics by Charles Murray. Ephedra
by Sally Morton.
In Search of the Magic Lasso: The Truth About
the Polygraph by Fienberg & Stern.
Larry Lesser (UTEP,
Texas). An excellent review of Simpson's Paradox: a
key issue in Statistical Literacy. This chapter in the 2001
NCTM yearbook is now web available. Readers can reflect on the
"relative strengths and weaknesses of various representations"
Presents a trapezoidal technique illustrating Simpson's Paradox
after taking into account the influence of a binary
The fall 2006 issue of STATS magazine featured this article by Milo
Schield (W. M. Keck Statistical Literacy Project) with the subtitle, "Understanding
Confounding from Lurking Variables Using Graphs." This
essay presents a new graphical technique that allows students to
calculate the effect of a binary confounder on an association.
This article by William
Briggs helps set the context for Quantitative Literacy in the
MAA's Current Practices in Q/L. He
notes the "algebra dilemma" in designing a successful liberal
arts mathematics course and argues that "less could be better."
He argues that we should "avoid doing algebra when there is no
ulterior purpose and let the applications determine the necessary
mathematics." He notes that "the development of
effective mathematics courses for liberal arts students is
happening, albeit on a slow time scale."
Do we need a public understanding of statistics?
Fabienne Crettaz von Roten (University of Lausanne, Switzerland). She noted that Shen (1975)
divided science literacy into three categories: practical
[problem-solving] scientific literacy, civic scientific literacy, and
cultural [appreciative] scientific literacy. Public
Understanding of Science 2006 15: 243.
Lightning: The Curious World of Probabilities by
Jeffrey S. Rosenthal, Univ.
Toronto. "deconstructs the odds and oddities of chance, examining both
the relevant and irreverent role of randomness in our everyday lives."
QUIRK "To Strengthen the Educational Foundations of Citizenship"
saying, "students avoid quantitative reasoning (QR)" and
"frequently do not transfer [QR] skills; the College’s curriculum
currently lacks sufficient coordination in cultivating QR skills;
faculty seek basic and broader training in QR; and faculty seek a rich
means of assessing student learning of QR." Carleton's
proposal: "to use writing portfolios to assess and guide QR
fall 2006 QUIRK workshop, Neil Lutsky (right) proposed "Ten
Questions to Ask about Numbers."
Taylor (left), president of the National Numeracy Network, reviewed
"QR across the Liberal Arts
disciplines at Wellesley." See also
Spring 2006 workshop.
his APA article, Neil
Lutsky (QUIRK Director) gave four reasons why psychology is well-suited to contribute to undergraduate education in
quantitative reasoning. He argues that "psychologists can
appreciate the educational rationale for QR across the curriculum"
if students "are to develop and strengthen generalized QR cognitive
In his ASA paper analyzing 200 student writing portfolios, Neil Lutsky
(QUIRK Director) found that QR was central in a third (peripheral in about a third) and
that QR reasoning was used in two-thirds of the former (about a tenth
of the latter). Criteria for usage
included, "Takes advantage
of opportunities to test claims empirically; Interprets data in light of
questions under consideration; Presents the analysis of data and
interpretation of results effectively; and
Assesses the limitations of the
methods employed to the task or assignment."
2006 SIGMAA QL
Moran (Trinity) asked an important question: What can go wrong with QL programs?
Her answers: "money runs out; the program is too expensive to be continued
by the home institution. Colleagues do not support (or hatchet)
program. School administration changes, and changes, and changes, and
changes. Program depends on a few individuals who become exhausted
and burned out."
Courses at Colleges
presented "Q/R Requirement at the Univ. of Massachusetts Boston."
Kimberly M. Vincent and Beth Buyserie, Washington State Univ. presented
"Learning to Make Inferences: Connecting Q/L and Language Arts for
Math and English Preservice Teachers." Bernie Madison
(Univ. of Arkansas) presented
Math News. Schield (Augsburg College) presented "Mathematics
MAA Quantitative Literacy Workshop
Sweet (left, Ithaca College) presented
Teaching Data Structures and
Relationships Using General Social Surveys. Jack Bookman (Duke
Univ.) presented Lessons
Learned About Assessing Quantitative Literacy. Judy
Trinity's QL program. Bernie Madison (NNN President)
presented slides and a
detailed syllabus on News
Diefenderfer (right) presented Hollins' Q/R goal: "to
understand mathematical and statistical reasoning" and "use
appropriate mathematical and/or statistical tools in summarizing data,
making predictions and establishing cause-and-effect relationships."
& Beth Fratesi (Univ S. Florida) presented
Developing the Q/L Habit of Mind.
Joan Garfield (chair), the GAISE college group concluded, "We should
teach students that the practical operation of statistics is to collect
and analyze data to answer questions." "The
desired result of all introductory statistics courses is to produce
statistically educated students which means that students should develop
statistical literacy and the ability to think statistically."
The GAISE College report recommended that "introductory courses in
statistics should, as much as possible, strive to: 1)
emphasize statistical literacy and develop statistical
thinking, 2) use real data, 3) stress conceptual understanding rather than mere knowledge of
procedures, 4) foster active learning in the classroom, 5) use technology for developing conceptual understanding and
analyzing data, and 6) integrate assessments that are aligned with course goals to
improve as well as evaluate student learning."
Chris Franklin, the GAISE PreK-12 Group prepared
Guidelines for Assessment and Instruction in Statistics Education
(GAISE). "The Ultimate Goal: Statistical Literacy."
Offered a three-level framework for each step in a statistical study
(Formulate Question, Collect Data, Analyze Data and Interpret Results)
and for understanding variability. Many examples.
The GAISE PreK-12 report, "the ultimate goal: statistical
A statistically literate high school
graduate will know how to interpret the data in the morning newspaper
and will ask the right questions about statistical claims.
The GAISE PreK-12 report gave
these reasons: 1) Statistical literacy is required for
daily personal choices, 2) An investment in statistical
literacy is an investment in our nation’s economic future as well as the
well-being of individuals, and 3) Statistical
literacy is essential in our personal lives as consumers, citizens and
The GAISE College report stated, "We define statistical literacy as
understanding the basic language of statistics (e.g., knowing what
statistical terms and symbols mean and being able to read statistical
graphs), and understanding some fundamental ideas of statistics."
This report noted that, "students should develop statistical literacy
and the ability to think statistically." The
college report suggests assessing statistical literacy by students
"interpreting or critiquing articles in the news and graphs in media."
"Some people teach courses that are heavily slanted toward teaching
students to become statistically literate and wise consumers of data;
this is somewhat similar to an art appreciation course. Some
teach courses more heavily slanted toward teaching students to become
producers of statistical analyses; this is analogous to the
studio art course. Most courses are a blend of consumer and
producer components, but the balance of that mix will determine the
importance of each recommendation."
Watson (Univ. of Tasmania) used her
1997 three-tier classification
(concepts, context and arguments) to establish a base and measure
change. Results: middle-schoolers had poorly developed
skills and effect size changes were modest. Conclusion: "broadly based educational
goals..., may provide contexts for using statistical literacy skills
across the curriculum."
Callingham (U. New England, Au) presented "Assessing Statistical
Literacy: A Question of Interpretation." Reviews the
Watson-Callingham construct of statistical literacy, reviews Rasch
measurement and applies both to school data. Result:
Statistical Literacy is an independent construct, and
alternate forms of assessment are appropriate.
Lynda Merriman (Baradene College,
NZ) presented "Using
Media Reports to Develop Statistical Literacy in Year 10 Students."
"no correlation between mathematical ability and
students’ performance", "positive
correlation between English ability and statistical literacy."
Post-test. Focus on lurking variables (alternate explanations).
Palmer (right) and Anthony Crawford (University of Otago, NZ)
reviewed "Some Current Statistical Reporting by Journalists in New
Zealand." Items seldom published include response rates (14%
in the US today) and margins of error for small subgroups. They
concluded that the uncommitted vote was poorly handled and journalists need to be taught to do a better job.
Ridgway (left) and James Nicholson (right) presented challenges in
using multi-variate data as evidence in schools. See also
Reasoning with Data -- Time for a
Yu, (left) and Wing K Fung (Hong Kong University). "Almost
every day we come across statistics in our newspapers. These statistics
have been used in ... a general education course offered to
undergraduate students ... without a statistics background. Students
find the topics interesting and appreciate the wide-ranging applications
of statistics in different areas.
Araújo (Pontificate in Chile) presented
"Statistical Illiteracy...: A consequence of the different visions
about statistics." He reviewed various definitions of statistics and
asserted that statisticians' lack of interest in defining Statistics "is
the main reason for the inefficacy in the efforts made ... to install or
to improve statistical education in the region."
Pierce (Indiana) presented "SATS
at Ball State Univ.: Approaches and Attitudes." Results
were presented from pre and post SATS scores. VALUE had a
small negative change. Several studies have found that students
see less value in statistics after taking an intro course than they did
Schau's paper reviews the instrument and earlier
(Netherlands) presented Learning Goals: The Primacy of Statistical
Knowledge. After reviewing three closely-related concepts (statistical literacy, reasoning and
thinking) he noted that "their existence is not
dictated by empirical observations." He
concluded that "the inherent ambiguity of the three concepts makes
them unsuitable as learning goals for statistics education."
Murphy (University College, Ireland) presented, "A Non-Standard
Approach to Teaching an Introductory Statistics Course...."
Student response shifted from 82% negative to uniformly positive.
Conclusion: "We believe that a “taster” course ... which ...
concentrates on principles and critical thinking should act as a
precursor to the new data-driven Introductory Statistics course."
delMas (left), Ann Ooms, Joan Garfield (U. Minnesota) and Beth Chance
(Cal. Polytechnic) described the NSF-funded ARTIST project, a
project designed "to help teachers assess statistical literacy,
statistical reasoning, and statistical thinking in first courses of
statistics." ARTIST stands for "Assessment Resource Tools for
Improving Statistical Thinking." ARTIST
Barbieri (right) & Paola Giacché IStat Italy. "we see
statistical numeracy as a tool for democracy, as a skill that should be
in the cultural baggage of every good citizen. If literacy is the
capability of expressing oneself and understanding, statistical numeracy
is the ability to understand, appreciate & use simple symbolical
expressions (numbers & charts)."
Cumming (LaTrobe University) presented a paper relating repeatability (replication)
to statistical confidence and statistical significance. He noted
that a given 95% confidence interval can be expected to capture the
means of 86% of all future random samples. This paper may give
educators new options in presenting statistical inference.
Fidler (LaTrobe Univ./Univ Melbourne) asked "Should Psychology abandon
p-values and teach CIs instead?." She traced the history of null-hypothesis
significance tests (NHST) in medicine, ecology and psychology. She noted
NHSTs are no
longer used in the journal, Epidemiology. See her ICOTS-6 paper "The
Reeducation of Psychology."
Díaz (left) and Inmaculada de la Fuente (Univ. of Grenada) presented "Assessing
Psychology Students' Difficulties with Conditional Probability and
Bayesian Reasoning." They created a survey assessment to
measure understanding of 6 key concepts and 12 related procedures.
Psychology students' error rates ranged from 7% to 80%.
Schield (Augsburg College) presented results of the 2002 W. M. Keck
Statistical Literacy survey: high error rates. In
a 100% row table, 44% of students misread a description of a percentage.
In a pie chart, 53% of professionals misread a comparison of two slices.
In reading an X-Y plot, 81% of college teachers misread a "times more
Watkins (Carleton, Canada) noted, "A problem in developing a QL program
... is that it lacks a disciplinary home. This paper examines the
processes by which these programs become mainstream, and recommend
approaches to develop a QL framework using best practices." Wendy presented "Introducing
Data into Canadian Academic Libraries" at ICOTS.
IASSIST 2006, Milo Schield introduced an
expanded version of the web-based drill program that
evaluates users' ordinary English descriptions and comparisons of rates and
a half-day workshop. Schedule. Feedback.
Milo also presented the results of the
2002 W. M. Keck Statistical Literacy Survey
Results: Reading Graphs and Tables
of Rates and Percentages.
Statistical Educators & QL
Dennis Trewin "We
live in the information age. Statistical thinking is a life skill that
all Australian children should have." SSAI
and ABS are working "to ensure Australian school children acquire a sufficient
understanding and appreciation of how data can be used so they can make informed judgements in their daily lives." Internat.
Statist. Rev. 73, #2 (2005)
Haines (left) and
Jordan (right), Lawrence U. "statistics educators can and should
assist the QL cause." Students didn't see stats increasing
& Quantitative Literacy
Madison, President of NNN, presented three
guidelines: "materials must be authentic," "fresh,"
and more "engaging." He predicted that if mathematics does not
lead QL, then QL will be
"a major threat to collegiate mathematics because QL-friendly courses
will likely replace courses such as college algebra." Slides:
syllabus for "News Math"
Schield (Augsburg College) reviewed graphs in USA
Today Snapshots online. Of the 229 graphs studied, ~70%
are bar graphs. Of these bar graphs, ~30% are 100% graphs while
~10% have bars that are wholes. Rules
are presented to identify if the bars are wholes. Includes recommendations.
[This paper ranked 2nd in 170 presented.]
Increasing QL through MACCC
Hartzler (Seattle CC) and Kim Rheinlander (Dartmouth) presented
slides on "Increasing QL
Marc Isaacson (Augsburg College). Student comment: “I have to admit,
that I took this course to fulfill the math credits I need. I didn't
really realize how important statistical literacy is until I took this
course. Even though I really don't like math, I may consider another
statistics course just to get full understanding and better skilled.”
2005 US Conference On Teaching
her plenary talk, Roxy Peck (Cal
characterized students in Intro Statistics as 'spectators,' 'referees'
and 'players.' Spectators are those
interested and excited: who enjoy “watching” In a statistics-appreciation type course, students
should appreciate the “beauty of statistics”
or at least their usefulness. 1up
Watkins (left) and Dick
Scheaffer (right) gave a plenary talk.
Ann found that 49% of
statistical educators said we should teach concepts of inference -- not
[statistical] tests. Dick
Scheaffer noted "the need for statistical thinkers"
Chance Project has been housed at Dartmouth under the leadership
of J. Laurie Snell (right). Chance News reviews
articles in the news that use probability or statistical concepts.
It is aimed at helping the general public better understand current
chance news and assisting teachers ... who want to liven up their
courses by using current chance news. To make contributions
easier, Chance News is now available at
PDQ refers to Prose, Document, and
Quantitative literacy proficiency scales. "Prose literacy
measures how well individuals understand and use information found in
newspapers." "Document literacy assesses how well a
person understands information in forms, schedules, charts and graphs,
and tables. Quantitative literacy involves reading...materials
associated with Prose and Document literacy, but differs in that the
individual needs to identify the appropriate information and perform...
Student quantitative literacy:
Importance, Measurement and Correlation with Economic Literacy
McGoldrick and Burrus
students lacking a basic level of quantitative literacy, interpretation
of economic concepts can be lost in the translation." "This
lack of attention to students' quantitative literacy might contribute to
lower degrees of economic literacy."
dissertation, James W. Mauch says "a basic understanding of
mathematics and statistics, as well as a knowledge of how numbers and
statistics can be used and abused... are important components of a
twenty-first century American education. This understanding is
critical for the survival and success of the individual and our
Task: Analyzing and Integrating Material from Graphs and
will be given materials (two charts or graphs and a brief reading
passage) on the same or similar topics. You will be asked to
identify and state accurately the claims in the reading selection
and to explain the relationship between these
claims and the relevant data in the figures with accuracy, clarity
Led by Gilliland, Hartzler,
Leoni, Collins and Bibby. "The goal is
to create a mathematically literate society that ensures a workforce
equipped to compete in a technologically advanced global economy. This
will be accomplished by training math and non-math faculty across the
disciplines to create, evaluate and modify projects that incorporate
AMATYC News. [
NSF DUE -0442439]
National Survey of America's College
"The survey measured abilities related to three types of skills: prose,
document and quantitative literacy. Quantitative literacy involves the
ability to perform computations – including balancing a checkbook,
calculating a tip, or completing an order form."
"Students in 2- and 4-year colleges have the most difficulty with
quantitative literacy: approximately 30 percent of students in 2-year
institutions and nearly 20 percent of students in 4-year institutions
have only Basic quantitative literacy."
30 ARTICLE DOWNLOADS
Top 30 Downloads from www.StatLit.org in 2006
Number in parenthesis is the number of reader
"download" in 2006.
Howard Wainer, Nat. Board of Medical Examiners. Draft for The American Statistician 2004 (1,338)
Exploring Simpson's Paradox,
by Larry Lesser NCTM 2001 (941)
Online Program for Decoding Ordinary English Descriptions
and Comparisons of
Percentages & Rates Burnham & Schield 2005 ASA (860)
An Online Course
at Capella University Marc Isaacson (Augsburg College)
2005 ASA (854)
Statistics for Political
Science Majors Gary Klass (Illinois State University) 2004 ASA (786)
Statistical Literacy Survey
Results, Schield 2006 IASSIST (694)
Frequency of Simpson's
Paradox in NAEP Data, Terwilliger & Schield, 2004 AERA (688)
Literacy and Chance,
Milo Schield 2005 ASA (657)
Statistical Literacy Survey Analysis,
ICOTS 6up (521)
People Count: The Social
Construction of Statistics Joel Best 2002 Augsburg College (460)
Percentage Tables in USA Today
Schield 2006 ASA (445)
Quantity Words Without Numbers: Why Students use "Many",
Schield 2005 Carleton (436)
People Count: The Social
Construction of Statistics, Joel Best 2002 ASA (433)
Statistical Literacy: An
Evangelical Calling for Statistical Educators, Milo Schield,
2005 ISI (429)
Some Difficulties Learning
Histograms, by Carl Lee & Maria Meletiou-Mavrotheris ASA 2003 (409)
Introduction to an
Online Ratio Statement Validator, Burnham & Schield, 2006 IASSIST
Why Should We Even Teach Statistics? A Bayesian
Gudmund Iversen, 2000 Tokyo Round Table (298)
Statistical Literacy and Evidential Statistics,
1998 ASA (241)
Practical Applications of Benford's
Law for Integer Quantities by Dean Brooks, 2002 ASA (237)
Epidemiology for Teaching
Statistics Chris Olsen 2005 ASA (235)
Curriculum Design, Milo Schield 2004
IASE Curriculum Roundtable, Lund Sweden (209)
Presenting Confounding Graphically Using Standardization, Milo
Draft for STATS magazine (204)
as Mathematical Objects, Schield and Burnham (Draft) 2006 MAA. Slides 6up
What Can 'CSI' Teach
Us about Statistical Literacy Jane
Miller 2005 ASA (192)
Important Math Concepts
for Numeracy Bernie Madison 2005 MAA (179)
Student Attitudes: The
Other Important Outcome in Statistical Education, Candace Schau
ASA JSM 2003 (171)
To Promote Statistical Literacy
Milo Schield 2004 ICME-10 (160)
Statistical Literacy: Describing and
Comparing Rates and Percentages Milo Schield 2000 ASA (137)
Literacy" textbook: Introduction, 2005 (124)
Planning a Statistical
Literacy Course, Robert Hayden 2004 ASA (120)
12 SITE PAGES
Top Web Pages Viewed at www.StatLit.org in 2006.
Number in parenthesis is the total number of
reader "views" in 2006.
StatLit 2005 (11,617):
Stat-Lit related news items from 2005.
(2,019): List of over 200 web-accessible Stat-Lit related papers.
StatLit Survey (1,814): Take
surveys on Statistical Literacy.
(1,710): List of over 300 Stat-Lit related books.
(1,558): Details on 7 Q/L-related textbooks.
Note that the top site
Program Introduction and Operating
Instructions, has over 20,000 hits. This page is
not listed because using this program is required for students in
(1,280): Details on Best's two Stat-Lit related books.
Standardizing (1,232): Excel graph
(1,044): Details on Q/L-related activities.
(1,016): Details on 7 Q/L-related books.
(845): Stat-Lit related news items from 2004.
(810): Links to Stat-Lit related web sites.
(741): Stat-Lit related news items from 2003.
The "top 12 pages" may
be misleading, since there are only 20 such pages currently
available on this site. By comparison there are over 200
articles in PDF form available from this site.