StatLit Papers
03/20/14

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STATISTICAL LITERACY PAPERS

Featured Listing: Statistics Education: Steadfast or Stubborn  by Milo Schield ASA

These web-accessible articles are relevant to the teaching of statistical literacy. They consider fundamental questions in statistical education that involve using statistical associations in observational data (rather than random assignment in experiments) to argue for causal connections.

"a clear understanding ... of statistical issues in observational data is needed for statistical practice in the real world."  Stroup et al,

Teaching Statistical Principles Using Epidemiology..., The American Statistician, Feb 2004. P. 77.

 

New Listings in 2014 (By month added)

01  Dynamic Visualization of Economic Indicators by Katherine Jenny Thompson and Mark E. Wallace. U.S. Census Bureau.   ASA 2013.

01  Fusion and causal analysis in big marketing data sets by Igor Mandel  ASA 2013.

01  Reality Checks for a Distributional Assumption: The Case of “Benford’s Law” by William Goodman  ASA 2013.

01  Challenging Statistical Claims in the Media Course and Gender Effects, Rose Martinez-Dawson ASA 2013 Abstract   Audio  1up  6up

 

New Listings in 2013 (By month added)

09  Statistics Education: Steadfast or Stubborn? by Milo Schield ASA 2013. Audio  1up  6up

09  Getting to know your variables: A critical element of a statistical analysis by Jane Miller  ASA 2013. Abstract   Audio  1up   6up

09  Key Components of Numeracy Infusion Course for Higher Education by Esther Wilder ASA 2013.  Handout  Abstract  1up    6up

09  Responsible Statistics: Using Statistics to Shape Public Opinion (6up slides) by Andrew Nelson  12/2011.  6up

08  ASA President's Message: Statistical Literacy and the 2013 Year of International Statistics by Ruth Carver. 2012.

07  David Moore Page at StatLit.org with numerous publications.

07  Anne Hawkins Response to New Pedagogy and New Content by David Moore. ISR, 1997. "I would argue in favour of 'Statistical Literacy for All'..."

06  Statistical Literacy of Obstetrics- Gynecology Residents by Bretta Anderson, Sterling Williams & Jay Schulkin.  J. of Graduate Medical Education, p 272-275. 6/2013.

05  Display Paired Confidence Intervals using Excel by Milo Schield, 2013.  1up   6up

05  Odysseys2Sense: A Startup Guide by Milo Schield, 2012.  6up  Audio text

05  The Effects of a Course on Statistical Literacy upon Students' Challenges to Statistical Claims made in the Media by Rose Martinez-Dawson.  PhD Thesis. 2010.

05  Bias, Causality, Change, Dichotimization, Likert and Visual Analog Scales, N versus (N-1) Re-visited, To pool or not to pool by Thomas Knapp 2013.

05  Help Yourselves (and the Public) Know the Truth by Victor Cohn in Significance 1999. 

04  Statistical Literacy Serves Police Officers in Many Ways by Irina Soderstrom at Eastern Kentucky Univ.

03  Scientific reproducibility: Begley's Six Rules by Bruce Booth in Forbes: Pharma and Healthcare.  9/26/2012.

03  A New Test for Randomness with Application to Stock Market Index Data by Alicia G. Strandberg and Boris Iglewicz.  ASA JSM 2012.

03  A Closer Look at Air Pollution-Mortality Relationships for California Members of the American Cancer Society Cohort by Lipfert and Young, ASA JSM 2012.

03  Developing a Test of Normality in the Classroom by Jernigan, American Univ., Washington DC.  ASA JSM 2012.

03  Teaching and Learning Confounding in the Health Sciences by Felicity Enders, Miranda Kroehl, John McGready, Rickey Carter.  2012 ASA Proceedings

01  "n"  by Thomas Knapp 2012.
01  Significance Test, Confidence Interval, Both or Neither? by Thomas Knapp 2013.
01  Reinventing Business Statistics: Statistical Literacy for Managers by Milo Schield.  MBAA-Chicago  6up
 

New Listings in 2012 (By month added)

12   n by Thomas R. Knapp.  Answers to statistical questions involving "How many...?"
       The "Unknown Student" Survey by Zawojewski, Nowakowski and Boruch.  1987 ASA-Proceedings

      Introducing Probability and Statistics into the English Studies Curriculum by Goldberg, Zawojewski and Boruch. 1987 ASA-Proceedings

      Romeo and Juliet: Fate, Chance, or Choice. An English Lesson Using Probability by Zawojewski, Nowakowski and Boruch 1988 Teaching-Statistics

      Coupling Literature and Statistics by Borch and Zawojewski.  1988 Teaching-Statistics

10   Lost: Assessing Student Survival Skills in the Statistical Wilderness using Real Data by Marc Isaacson, ASA Abstract 6up

10   How Economic and Social Statistics became the Stepchildren of the Profession by Othmar Winkler, ASA.

10   Teaching Quantitative Reasoning Skills: A Numeracy Infusion Course for Higher Education (NICHE) by Esther Wilder, ASA,  6up Handout

10   How I Created a Trapezoidal Display of Simpson's Paradox, Arjun Tan (Prof Emeritus at Alabama A&M Univ.)

09   Lost: Assessing Student Basic Survival Skills in the Statistical Wilderness Using Real Data   Marc Isaacson, ASA  6up

09   How Causal Heterogeneity Influences Statistical Significance in Clinical Trials   Milo Schield, ASA  6up

08   Teaching Quantitative Reasoning Skills: A Numeracy Infusion Course for Higher Education (NICHE), Esther Wilder Abstract 6up Handout

05   Big Data Creates Beguiling Coincidences   Milo Schield  2012 e-COTS video (5 min draft)  6up  Runs.xls     Clusters.xls

03   Statistical Literacy in Film Studies I   Statistical Literacy in Film Studies II   Dick Redfern blog

03   Learning Statistics through Playing Cards   Tom Knapp 2012

03   Using Pearson Correlations to teach or learn statistics   Tom Knapp

03   Random   Tom Knapp

02   Teaching Introductory Statistics and Study Design to Residents in at Teaching Hospital. Lori Lyn Price, Jessica Paulus and Joan Griffith, 2011 ASA JSM

01   Coincidence in Runs and Clusters.   Milo Schield, 2012 MAA    6up   Runs.xls   Clusters.xls   Bday.xls    Recursion.xls

 

New Listings in 2011 (By month added)

12   Teaching Statistics using the News Media, Paulette Ceesay, 2011 ASA JSM  6up

       Pop-stats books and Statistical Education - Kaiser Fung, New York Univ. 2011 ASA JSM 1up.

       Integrating Quantitative and Financial Literacy - Joseph Ganem, Loyola Univ., Maryland.  2011 ASA JSM  6up

       Learning to Read the Numbers: Critical Literacy and Numeracy in K-8 Classrooms - David and Phyllis Whitin, Wayne State U.2011 ASA JSM  1up

       Assessing Quantitative Reasoning: What Do Freshmen Know? - Ermine Faith Orta, Nandini Kannan and Kimberly Massaro, Univ. Texas San Antonio.2011 ASA JSM  6up

10   Teaching Teachers Statistical Literacy Online, Milo Schield 2011 National Numeracy Network Conference 6up

09   Statistics and Clinical Trials: Past, Present and Future - by Herb Weisberg, Correlation Research 2011 ASA JSM  1up
       Teaching the Social Construction of Statistics, Milo Schield 2011 IASE Ireland 6up

       Epidemiological Models and Spotty Statistics by Milo Schield  2011 ISI Dublin 6up

       Describing Quantitative Relationships Using Informal Grammar by Milo Schield 2011 ASA JSM  6up 1up  Appendix  WB1  WB2

06   Statistical Literacy: A New Mission for Data Producers by Milo Schield  Statistical Journal of the IAOS 27 (2011) 173–183

04   Statistics in Society: Three Case Studies by Tom King  2011 Southampton Univ.   Statistical literacy: ‘familiarity with reading and writing data stories’.

       Trout, Catfish and Roach: a simple, amusing explanation as to how we reach our census population estimates.    2009 RSS.   2011 UK Census

03   US Supreme Court Brief on Statistical Significance by Debra McCloskey and Stephen Ziliak 2011

      Comments on Wild-Pfannkuch-Regan-Horton RSS Paper by Milo Schield 2011

02   Education Vision by Royal Statistical Society 2011

      Statistical Literacy Summer Course Online (GST 200 at Augsburg College) by Milo Schield 2011 Annoucement Syllabus

01   Teaching Statistical Literacy using Odyssey2Sense (TM): A Unique Web-Forum by Milo Schield  2011 MAA. 6up   Schield-Copes Odysseys Poster

 

New Listings in 2010 (By month added)

12   Assessing Students’ Attitudes: The Good, the Bad, and the Ugly by Anne Millar and Candace Schau  2010 ASA.

      Why do we study this? Critical Concepts to Retain from Statistics Class by Kathryn Hall and Diane K. Michelson ASA 2010

      Reform and Renewal in the Introductory Statistics Courses by Nancy Leveille, Anna Simmons and Ron Barnes  ASA 2010

      Statistical Inference, Statistics Education, and the Fallacy of the Transposed Conditional by Andy Neath ASA 2010

10   QL across the Curriculum: Integrating Skills from English Composition, Mathematics and Substantive Disciplines, Jane Miller The Educational Forum, 74: 334–46 2010

09   Teaching Statistical Literacy as a Quantitative Rhetoric Course by John Schmit ASA  2010 6up

      Statistical Literacy for Managers: Analyzing Time Series data by Anders and Britt Wallgren ASA 2010  6up

      Numbers in Everyday Life: A Short Course for Adults by Gerald Hahn, Necip Doganaksoy, Ricki Lewis, Jane Oppenlander & Josef Schmee  2010 ASA  6up

      Probability in Decline by Dean Brooks ASA 2010 6up

      The Undetectable Difference: An Experimental Look at the “Problem” of p-Values by Bill Goodman 2010 ASA  6up

      The Social Construction of Rankings by Milo Schield ASA 2010 6up

08   Statistics for All — the Flip Side of Quantitative Reasoning by J. Michael Shaughnessy, NCTM President   2010 NCTM.

07   Using media reports to promote statistical literacy for non-quantitative majors by Stephanie Budgett, Maxine Pfannkuch (NZ). 2010 ICOTS8

       Luring non-quantitative majors into advanced statistical reasoning (and luring statistics educators into real statistics): Nicholson, Ridgway & McCusker UK. 2010 ICOTS8

       Using a Five Step Framework for interpreting tables and graphs in their contexts: Marian Kemp and Barry Kissane (AU). 2010  ICOTS8

       How we can all learn to think critically about data: Ian Gordon, Sue Finch (AU). 2010 ICOTS8

05   Ad: Statistical Literacy Course Online at Augsburg College.  Milo Schield, Instructor   Syllabus.   Odyssey Introduction

      Interpreting Economic and Social Data: A Foundation of Descriptive Statistics. Othmar Winkler Springer 2009.  Comments:  Keith Ord, Walter Krämer.

04   Association-Causation Problems in News Stories.  Milo Schield, Augsburg College.  ICOTS-8 2010. See Merriam-Webster (1994): Usage of "times".

03   Interpreting the Cumulative Frequency Distribution of Socio-Economic Data.  Othmar Winkler, Professor emeritus, Georgetown Univ.  ASA 2009.

      Inference From Matched Samples in the 2008 U.S. National Elections. Douglas Rivers and Delia Bailey (YouGov Polimetrix).  ASA 2009.

      Livening Up the Introductory Statistics Course with Non-traditional Media Resources [clickers]. Page Moore, Univ. Arkansas for Medical Sciences. ASA 2009.

      Building Bridges: Making Statistical Issues Accessible to the Biomedical and Translational Researcher. Taylor Pressler, Philip Binkley & Philip Payne. ASA 2009.

      Turning our GAISE toward Departments of Psychology. Patricia Rutledge, Allegheny College. ASA 2009.

      Statistics in the News. Nancy Reid, Univ. of Toronto.  Talk at the Univ. Georgia,  April 2009.  1up slides

02   Which is bigger 250 tonnes or 17%: A tale of salt. Jane Watson and Kim Beswick.  AAMT  2009.

01   SIGMAA-QL 2009 Survey: Quantitative Graduation Requirements at US Four-Year Colleges by Milo Schield at JMM 2010. 6up

      Who's Counting?  Opinion article by Doug Smith in the LA Times (1/31/2010) with comments by Steen and Schield.

 

New Listings in 2009 (By month added)

12  Quantitative Literacy: An Imperative for America by Bernie Madison. Slides presented at Ohio State 2009.

      On the Importance and Measurement of Pre-Service Teachers' Efficacy to Teach Statistics  2009 ASA Harrell, Pierce, Sorto, Murphy, Lesser and Enders

      The Numbers Guy Index of WSJ Articles: 2006-2009.  

      Developing statistical literacy with students and teachers in the secondary mathematics classroom.  2008 Masters Thesis by Phillip Doyle. Waikato U. NZ. 

      Focus on Basics 2008 9B:  Health & Literacy Partnerships Published by World Education.

11  Numbers in Everyday Life: A Short Course for Adults by Hahn, Doganaksoy, Lewis, Oppenlander and Schmee (2009, Amstat News -- a longer draft)

      Numbers in Everyday Life #1: Introduction by Gerald Hahn and Jane Oppenlander. Union College Academy for Life Long Learning (UCALL, 2008)

      Numbers in Everyday Life #2: Polls in the News by Joseph Schmee UCALL (2008)

      Numbers in Everyday Life #3: Medical and Health Studies by Ricki Lewis UCALL (2008)

      Numbers in Everyday Life #4: Numbers in Business and industry by Necip Doganaksoy UCALL (2008)

      Numbers in Everyday Life #5: Wrap up class by Gerald Hahn UCALL (2008)

10  Quantitative Literacy across the Curriculum by Jane Miller (draft) for Educational Forum

     Statistical Literacy: Knowing What's Wheat and What's Chaff by Chase Brady (2008, Univ West Virginia at Parkersburg) 

09  The Cult of Statistical Significance by Stephen Ziliak and Deirdre McCloskey  2009 ASA  6up   4up

     Spinning Heads and Spinning News: Statistics in the Media by Rebecca Goldin (George Mason U.) 2009 ASA 6up

      Statistical Challenges in Medical Research: What Consumers Need to Know by Ronald R Gauch (Marist College) 2009 ASA  6up

      Distinguishing Association from Causation in Media Headlines by Milo Schield and Robert Raymond  2009 ASA.   6up
      Confound Those Speculative Statistics by Milo Schield  2009 ASA.   6up
05  Survey of Attitudes Toward Statistics: An Exploratory Look by Marjorie Bond 2008 ASA
      Common Issues in SATS Research by Candace Schau 2008 ASA
      Students’ Attitudes Toward Statistics: Are there differences among various majors?  by Rebecca Pierce and Molly Jameson  2008 ASA.
      The Assessment of Quantitative Literacy at a Large Public Institution  by Yvette Nicole Johnson and Jennifer Kaplan  2008 CRUME.
04  Understanding the Difficulty in Teaching Sampling Distribution, Margin of Error and Statistical Inference by Kriska, Fulcomer & Sass 2008 ASA
      Applying Resampling to Analyze the Sensitivity of a Hypothesis Test to Confounding by William Goodman 2008 ASA

03  Statistical Significance of Ranking Paradoxes by Anna Bargigliotti and Jim Greenwell 2009 MAA JMM  6up

02  Numeracy: Assessing Basic Skills and Knowledge by Milo Schield 2009 MAA JMM  6up

     Univ. Texas San Antonio: Quantitative Scholarship - Final Draft    Press release 2009

01  von Mises' Frequentist Approach to Probability by Milo Schield and Tom Burnham 2008 ASA

 

New Listings in 2008 (By month added)

12  Interpreting the substantive significance of multivariate regression coefficients by Jane Miller 2008 ASA

11  Using Simulation to Teach Statistical Literacy by Marc Isaacson  2008 ASA

10  Just Plain Data Analysis by Gary Klass  2008 ASA

09  Numbers in the News: A Survey by Robert Raymond and Milo Schield 2008 ASA Data6up and 1up

08  Statistical Literacy Skills Survey by Milo Schield, 2008 PKAL-Carleton. 6up slides.

07  Student Attitudes Toward Statistics at Augsburg: 2003-2004 by Milo and Cynthia Schield 2008 ASA

06  Q/L in America: What Kind, How Much and Beyond by Bernie Madison

05  Analyzing Numbers in the News: A Structured Critical-Thinking Approach by Milo Schield, 2008 NNN  6up

04  Using Chance Media to Promote Statistical Literacy by J. Laurie Snell, 1999 ASA

03  Quantitative Literacy in America: What Kind to How Much and Beyond by Bernie Madison, 2008 MAC/QR conference at BMCC

02  Expectations for Statistical Literacy: A Survey Of College Faculty by David Kriska (Walden U.), Mark Fulcomer (Stockton) & Marcia Sass (UMD-NJ) 2007 ASA

01  Including Construction in Quantitative Literacy by Joel Best  2007 MSS

 

New Listings in 2007 (By month added)

12  Building Statistical Literacy Assessment Tools with the IASE ISLP by Juana Sanchez.  2007 IASE

11  Assessing Students' Statistical Literacy by Stephanie Budgett and Maxine Pfannkuch.  2007 IASE

10  Numbers in the News: A Survey.  Milo Schield (Augsburg College) and Cynthia Schield (Former co-publisher of the Napa County Record)

09  Grammar of Statements Involving "Chance".  Milo Schield (Augsburg College) and Tom Burnham (Cognitive Consulting)

08  Prevarication: Mutual Fund Studies that Distort Investor's Perceptions.  Marshall Schield, President STIR Research (Durango, CO)

06  Quantitative Literacy and School Mathematics: Percentages and Fractions, by Milo Schield, 2007 Wingspread Conference

05  Statistical Literacy: Factual Assessment to Support Hypothetical Thinking by Milo Schield, 2007 IASE Satellite Conference, Portugal

04  What do M&M's, dahlias, soil erosion and data analysis across the curriculum have in common? by Jerry Moreno, 2006 ASA

03  Teaching the Social Construction of Statistics by Milo Schield, 2007 Midwest Sociological Society, Chicago  Slides 4up

02  Expectations for Statistical Literacy: A Comparison among Professions by Kriska, Fulcomer and Sass.  2006 ASA

01  Pedagogical Challenges of Quantitative Literacy by Bernie Madison, President of NNN,  2006 ASA

 

New Listings in 2006 (By month added)

12  Quirks of Rhetoric: a Quantitative Analysis of Quantitative Reasoning in Student Writing by Neil Lutsky, 2006 ASA

11  News-based Learning and Statistics by Wing K. Fung and Philip L. H. Yu,  2006 ICOTS

10  Percentage Graphs in USA Today Snapshots Online by Schield,  2006 ASA    Slides: 6up

09  Enhancing Statistical Literacy: Enriching Our Society by Katherine Wallman, 1992 Presidential Address, JASA 1993

09  Developing a Compulsory University-wide Statistical Literacy Program by Helen Carter and Catherine Milne 2000  Abstract  Conference

08  How did Teaching Introductory Statistics get to be so Complicated ?!? [slides] Roxy Peck, USCOTS 2005  6up 1up

06  Presenting Confounding Graphically Using Standardization by Milo Schield 2006 Draft for Stats magazine

05  Statistical Literacy Workshop Using a web-based Learning Object by Milo Schield 2006 IASSIST Workshop  Feedback

05  Introduction to an Online Ratio Statement Validator, Burnham and Schield, 2006 IASSIST Workshop

02  Exploring Simpson's Paradox by Larry Lesser NCTM 2001

01  Statistical Literacy Survey Analysis by Milo Schield 2006 ICOTS-7.   6up Slides.

01  Statistical Literacy Survey Results by Milo Schield 2006 IASSIST.


International Statistical Literacy Project (International Association of Statistical Educators)

Leaders

Enhancing Statistical Literacy: Enriching Our Society by Katherine Wallman, 1992 Presidential Address, JASA 1993

The First R -- For Reasoning by Anne Hawkins (Past Director of the RSS Centre for Statistical Education) 1997

Teaching Statistical Literacy by Dennis Haack in Teaching Statistics, Vol. 1.3, pp 74-76

A Note on Teaching Statistical Literacy by Dennis Haack in Teaching Statistics, Vol. 2.1, pp 22-23

David S. Moore (Past President of the American Statistical Association)

Statistics and Sound Bites: Statistical Literacy and the Internet  1999 US Bureau of the Census

Statistics Among the Liberal Arts  1998 ASA Presidential Address  JASA

Statistical Literacy and Statistical Competence in the 21st Century  1997 ASA JSM (slides)

Statistical Literacy and Statistical Competence in the 21st Century  1998 MSMESB Conference (Abstract)

Statistical Literacy and Statistical Competence in the New Century  2001 IASE Korea (slides)

Lynn Steen (Past President of Mathematics Association of America)

Quantitative Literacy: Why Numeracy Matters for Schools and Colleges. MAA Online

Quantitative Literacy. 2002 Focus, Newsletter of MAA, Feb 2002, Volume 22, #2, pp. 8-9

Reflections on Quantitative Literacy. 2001 PKAL

The New Literacy in "Why Numbers Count"

Why Numbers Count: Quantitative Literacy for Tomorrow's America. MAA 1998

Bernie Madison (Founder of the National Numeracy Network, Past-President of the National Council of Education and the Disciplines)

         Quantitative Literacy: An Imperative for America by Bernie Madison. Slides presented at Ohio State 2009.

Q/L in America: What Kind, How Much and Beyond  by Bernie Madison 2008

Evolution of Numeracy and the National Numeracy Network by Bernard L. Madison and Lynn Arthur Steen, Numeracy, Vol. 1 (2008), Issue 1, Article 2.
Abstract: The National Numeracy Network grew from heightened awareness of the complex and sophisticated nature of quantitative literacy and the resulting need for interdisciplinary attention to education for quantitative literacy in schools and colleges. This complexity and sophistication applies especially to the US where it is fueled by an agile economy and the needs of a democratic society. This paper describes the environment surrounding the National Numeracy Network’s establishment, some of its activities, and some complementary and synergistic actions by other professional societies. The paper concludes with a sample of quantitative literacy programs in colleges and universities

Pedagogical Challenges of Quantitative Literacy.  2006 ASA.  Slides 6up

Building Bridges for QL: NNN & SIGMAA QL. MAA News May 2005

What is a Course in QL?   2005 NNN Newsletter

News Math Course Description and Procedures 2005 Univ. Arkansas.  Posted on NNN website.

Quantitative Literacy Based on presentation at 2005 MAA QL SIG

Important Math Concepts for Numeracy Based on presentation at 2005 MAA

Educating for Numeracy. 2002 Notices of the American Mathematical Society

Richard Scheaffer (Past-President of the American Statistical Association in 2001)

Statistics and Quantitative Literacy from "QL: Why Numeracy Matters for Schools and Colleges"  2003 MAA Online.  Also

Quantitative Literacy and Statistics. 2001 AmStat News, Nov. 293, President's Column

Joel Best (University of Delaware): Author of "Damned Lies and Statistics" and "More Damned Lies and Statistics."

Birds -- Dead and Deadly: Why Quantitative Literacy needs to Address Social Construction  2008 Numeracy, Volume 1. Issue 1, Article 6.

Including Construction in Quantitative Literacy  2007 Midwest Sociology Society (MSS)

People Count: The Social Construction of Statistics  8/2002 ASA JSM

People Count: The Social Construction of Statistics  11/2002 Talk at Augsburg College

Although the two with the same title are similar, the latter focuses more on the future of Statistical Literacy.

Peter Holmes (Sr. Researcher, RSS Centre for Statistical Education, Nottingham Trent Univ.)

Statistical Literacy, Numeracy and the Future. Talk at Augsburg College 31 March 2003

Statistical Needs of Non-Specialists Young Workers. RSS Centre (1981)

Iddo Gal (former co-director of the Numeracy Project at the National Center for Adult Literacy)

Preparing for Diversity in Statistical Literacy  by Scott Murray and Iddo Gal, ICOTS-6 2006

Big Picture: What does 'Numeracy" Mean?  GED Items published by the Educational Testing Service

Functional demands of Statistical Literacy: Ability to read press releases from statistical agencies  IASE Berlin 2003

Expanding Conceptions of Statistical Literacy: Analysis of Products from Statistical Agencies, Statistics Educ. Research Jrnl,  2(1) 2003

Gal, I. (2002). Dispositional aspects of coping with interpretive numeracy tasks. Literacy and Numeracy Studies, 11(2), 47-61.

Numeracy Assessment Framework for Adult Literacy and Lifeskills Survey by Iddo Gal, Mieke van Groenestijn, Myrna Manly,
Mary Jane Schmitt and Dave
Tout. ALL Survey, National Center Educational Statistics, 2003

Teaching for Statistical Literacy and Services of Statistical Agencies, The American Statistician, 2003, Vol. 57 #2, pp 80-84.  Detailed review below.

  • Adults’ Statistical Literacy: Meaning Components & ResponsibilitiesInternational Statistical Review, Vol. 70, #1, April 2002, pp 1-25 "This paper concerns itself with people's ability to act as effective "data consumers" in diverse life contexts that for brevity are termed here Reading contexts.   Reading contexts should be distinguished from enquiry context where people (e.g., students, statisticians) engage in empirical investigation of actual data."  This article proposes a conceptualization of statistical literacy and describes its key components including the ability to interpret, critically evaluate, and communicate about statistical information and messages. Despite its title, this article is very relevant to statistical literacy at all levels. “It is argued that statistically literate behavior is predicated on the joint activation of five interrelated knowledge bases (literacy, statistical, mathematical, context, and critical), together with a cluster of supporting dispositions and enabling beliefs.  Educational and research implications are discussed, and responsibilities facing educators, statisticians, and other stakeholders are outlined.” (p. 1 of article). Note: Because of the importance of this article to the International Statistical Literacy Project, the ISI Permanent Office and the author have given permission to have a copy of the article available.

2000: Statistical literacy: Conceptual and instructional issues by Iddo Gal in D. Coben, J. O'Donoghue, & G. FitzSimons, (Eds.), Perspectives on Adults Learning Mathematics (pp. 135-150). London: Kluwer Academic Publishers.

Gal, I. (2000). The numeracy challenge. In I. Gal (Ed.), Adult Numeracy Development: Theory, research, practice (pp. 9-31).

Monitoring Attitudes and Beliefs in Statistics Education by Gal, Ginsburg & Schau, Assessment Challenge in Stats Education 37-54 1997

Gal, I. (1999)  Conceptualizing Statistical Literacy: An Assessment Perspective.  SRTL-1

Gal, I. (1999). Links between literacy and numeracy. In D. A. Wagner, B. Street, & R. L. Venezky (Eds.), Literacy: An international handbook (pp. 227-231). Boulder, CO: Westview Press.

Gal, I and J. Garfield.  "Curricular Goals and Assessment Challenges in Statistics Education The Assessment Challenge in Statistics Education

Gal, Iddo and Ashley Stoudt. "Numeracy: Becoming Literate With Numbers." Adult Learning, 9:2 (1997) 13.

Gal, I., & Baron, J. (1996). Understanding repeated simple choices. Thinking and Reasoning, 2(1), 1-18.

Gal, I., Ginsburg, L., & Schau, C. (1997). Monitoring attitudes and beliefs in statistics education. In I. Gal & J. B. Garfield (Eds.), The assessment challenge in statistics education (pp. 37-51). Amsterdam: IOS Press.

Gal, I., Mahoney, P., & Moore, S. (1992). Children's use of statistical terms. In W. Geeslin & Graham K. (Eds.), Proceedings of the 16th annual meeting of the International Group for Psychology in Mathematics Education (Vol. 3, p. 160). Durham, New Hampshire.

Jane Watson (author of Statistical Literacy at School Awards   Website

Statistical literacy in the middle school: The relationship between interest, self-efficacy and prior mathematics achievement.  Colin Carmichael, R. Callingham,

      I Hay, J. Watson.  Australian Journal of Educational & Developmental Psychology. Vol 10, 2010, pp. 83-93.

Measuring Middle School Students' Interest in Statistical literacy.  Colin Carmichael, R. Callingham, I Hay, J. Watson.  Math Ed Research Jrnl V22, N3, 11/2010.

Creating a Measure of Middle School Students' Interest in Statistical Literacy: Is it Possible?, Mathematics Education Research Journal V22, N3, Nov. 2010.

Factors Influencing the Development of Middle School Students' Interest in Statistical Literacy Colin Carmichael, R. Callingham, J. Watson, I Hay.   SERJ 2009.

Creating a Measure of Middle School Students' Interest in Statistical Literacy: Is it Possible?, Pacific Rim Objective Measurement Symposium, 2009,

          Hong Kong, pp. 1-5. ISBN 008044184-X

Which is bigger 250 tonnes or 17%: A tale of salt. Jane Watson and Kim Beswick AAMT 2009

Sample, Random and Variation: The Vocabulary of Statistical Literacy by Watson & Kelley. International Journal of Science and Mathematics Education 2007/8

Statistical Literacy in Middle Schools. Jane Watson  ICOTS  2006

Measuring Statistical Literacy  (Abstract) Rosemary Callingham and Jane Watson 2005  Journal of Applied Measurement.

Statistical Literacy: From Idiosyncratic to Critical Thinking. Watson & Callingham. 2004 IASE Roundtable, 47 pages [6 levels]

The Measurement of Student's Understanding of Statistical Variation. (Abstract) Watson, Kelley, Callingham & Shaughnessy 2004

Is Statistical Literacy Relevant for Middle School?  Jane Watson  2004

The Development of Comprehension of Chance Language: Evaluation and Interpretation. J. Watson,  J. B. Moritz. School Science and Mathematics. 2/2003

The Vocabulary of Statistical Literacy.  Jane Watson and Ben Kelley  AARE 2003

Statistical Literacy: A complex hierarchical concept   Jane Watson and Rosemary Callingham  SERJ 2003 [Six levels]

Statistical Literacy at the School Level: What Should Students Know and Do?  Jane Watson  IASE 2003

Development of Understanding of sampling for statistical literacy Watson and Moritz  Jrnl. of Mathematical Behavior 2000

The Beginning of Statistical inference: Comparing Two Data Sets (Abstract) Watson and Moritz   Educational Studies in Math 1998

Assessment of Statistical Understanding in a Media Context  Jane Watson ICOTS 1998

The Need for Statistical Literacy in Australia  by Jane Watson Science News 1997

The role of statistical literacy in decisions about risk: Where to start in For the Learning of Mathematics, 18(3), 25-27.  1998

Assessing statistical literacy using the media in Gal & Garfield (Eds.) The Assessment Challenge in Stat Education (pp. 107-121). 1997

Statistical literacy: A link between mathematics and society in A. Richards, G. Gillman, K. Milton, & J. Oliver (Eds.), Flair: Forging links and integrating resources (Proceedings of the 15th Biennial Conference of the Australian Association of Mathematics Teachers Inc., pp. 12-28). Adelaide, SA: AAMT, Inc.  [1995 Hanna Neumann Memorial Lecture]. 

Conditional probability: Its place in the mathematics curriculum. Mathematics Teacher, 88, 12-17.  1995

OTHER (1995 and prior)

A model for assessing higher order thinking in statistics

Cautionary Tales: A Collection of Mathematical Essays for Teachers

Children's understanding of luck

Developmental structure in the understanding of common and decimal fractions

Probability and statistics: An overview

Professional Development in Mathematics for Teachers - Who, What, Why and How

Teacher attitudes towards chance and data

The developments of concepts associated with sampling in grades 3, 5, 7, and 9

Visual Processing During Mathematical Problem Solving

What's in a graph?

Jerry Moreno (John Carroll University)

What do M&M's, dahlias, soil erosion and data analysis across the curriculum have in common?. 2006 ASA

What defines a "Statistically Literate" citizen. 2005 USCOTS

Concepts and Methods in One Intro Stats Course. 2004 ASA

Toward a Statistically Literate Citizenry: What Statistics Everyone Should Know. ICOTS-6 2002

Statistical Literacy -- Statistics Long After School. ICOTS-5 1997

Deborah Rumsey (Ohio State University)

“Statistical Literacy: Implications for Teaching, Research, and Practice,” 2002 International Statistical Review, 70, 32–36.

Statistical Literacy as a Goal for Introductory Statistics Courses,” Journal of Statistics Education, 2002.  10(3)

Neil Lutsky and Nathan Grawe (Carleton College, US)

“Assessing Quantitative Reasoning in Student Writing: A QuIRKy Experience,” Nathan Grawe, 2008 New England Educational Assessment Network6up

Quirks of Rhetoric: a Quantitative Analysis of Quantitative Reasoning in Student Writing. Neil Lutsky  (Carleton College)


Milo Schield, Director of the W. M. Keck Statistical Literacy Project    Papers chronologically    Papers by Topic

Statistical Literacy: An overview

Statistical Literacy: More Detail

Statistical Literacy: Summary statistics in the everyday media

Statistical Literacy: Surveys and Assessment

Statistical Literacy: Teaching

Statistical Literacy: Teaching using Odyssey

Statistical Literacy: Social Construction of Statistics

Statistical Literacy: Speculative statistics; spotty statistics

Statistical Literacy: Confounding

Statistical Literacy: Curriculum

Statistical Literacy: Describing and Comparing Ratios using Rates, Percentages and Chance

Web-based Tools to help students use ordinary English correctly to describe and compare ratios:

Statistical Literacy: Algebra of Association, Spuriousity and Reversal (Schield & Burnham)

Statistical Literacy: Chance and Inferential Statistics

Statistical Literacy: Miscellaneous, Policy Proposals and Grant Applications

Statistical Literacy: Reports

Statistical Literacy: Posters, Brochures and Proposals

Statistical Literacy: Talks with PowerPoint slides only, posters or other papers

  • Two Big Ideas in Teaching Big data.  A talk at the Twin Cities Chapter of the ASA held at Augsburg College on March 20, 2014. 6up  1up.
  • Adding Context to Introductory Statistics.  A talk at the Twin Cities Chapter of the ASA held at Augsburg College on May 22, 2013. 6up  1up  PPT.
  • Victor Cohn (1919-2000): A Retrospective: A talk at the Twin Cities Chapter of the ASA held at Augsburg College on Oct 14, 2012. 6up
  • Keene State College Workshop:   1 Statistical Literacy 6up;  2 Critical Thinking 6up; 3 Coincidence 6up; 5 Reading Tables and Graphs 6up;  6 Reading Graphs and Tables 6up; 7 Statistical Literacy and Mathematics 6up;  8 Statistical Literacy: Confounding 6up. May 15-17, 2012.
  • Coincidence in Run and Clusters.  6up  1up.  StatChat and ASA Chapter Meetings.  Macalester College, St. Paul., MN.  3/8/2012.
  • Statistical Literacy: A Math-Stat Alternative  6up 1up.   T3Conference, Chicago 3/2/2012
  • Statistical Literacy for All  6up 1up.      Statistical Literacy at Augsburg 6up 1up.   Lehman College  2/24/2012
  • Modeling in Context: Teaching Adjustment and Confounding through the Common Core Standards.  Poster, Milo Schield and Daniel Kaplan. USCOTS 2011
  • Where Do Statistics Come From? - Setting the Table for Introductory Statistics Poster, Marc Isaacson at USCOTS 2011
  • Multiple Choice: Olympic Success.  USCOTS Activity 6up   Marc Isaacson  2011
  • Hypothetical Thinking about Statistics: An Activity.  USCOTS 6up 2011
  • Odysseys Teach Critical Thinking. Poster, Augsburg College with Larry Copes. 5/10/2011.
  • Statistical Literacy: Confounding.  University of Texas, San Antonio  1/13/2011 6up
  • Statistical Literacy Worldwide: 2010. 1/6/2011  MAA JMM  6up
  • Statistical Literacy: Confounding.  University of St. Thomas 12/10/2010  6up  1up
  • Quantitative Literacy Today: An Update.  Carleton-PKAL conference. 10/08/2010 6up.
  • Statistical Literacy at Augsburg College.  Carleton-PKAL conference. 10/09/2010 6up
  • Science Literacy Requires Statistical Literacy  11/09 SENCER Symposium 6up
  • Statistical Literacy and Liberal Education  7/09 Free Minds '09 6up
  • Poster: Several Radical Ideas to Help Students Interpret Introductory Statistics  6/09 Brick & Schield USCOTS Small Poster. (Large: 3' x 4')
  • Statistical Literacy: A New On-Line Gen Ed Course for Math Teachers  2/09 Proposal for 2009 AMATYC
  • Statistical Literacy talks at Anderson University 6up and at the Univ. of Kentucky (Lexington) 6up.  10/08
  • Confounder Influence on Attributed Cases, 7/2008.  MAA MathFest. Madison, WI 6up 1up
  • Binary Confounders as Mathematical Objects, 7/2008.  European Conference on Methodology. Oviedo Spain 6up
  • Bayes' Comparisons 1/2008 StatChat, Macalester College (St. Paul, MN) 6up  1up.
  • Civic Engagement: Numbers in the News  10/2007 AACU Civic Learning at the Intersections, Denver CO 6up 1up
  • Quantitative Literacy Core Concepts  10/2007 Carleton QUIRK Project 6up   1up
  • Teaching Statistical Literacy  4/2007 National Numeracy Panel, Midwest Sociological Society Chicago 6up
  • Statistical Literacy: An Introduction. 8/2006 Univ. Connecticut 6up   1up
  • Statistical Literacy for Majors without Math Requirements. 3/2006 Univ. Wisconsin QL Conference 6up   1up
  • Mathematics of Association in Quantitative Literacy. 1/2006 MAA 6up
  • Statistical Literacy: Errors Reading Graphs. 12/2005 Kansas City Actuarial Club 6up
  • Statistical Literacy and Critical Thinking, 7/2005 TOC Summer Seminar at Union College 6up
  • Statistical Literacy and Epidemiological Reasoning, 7/2005 TOC Summer Seminar at Union College 1up 6up
  • Quantitative Literacy: Core Concepts, 6/2005 MAA QL Workshop at Macalester College  6up  1Up Notes
  • 2002 Statistical Literacy Survey, 5/2003 IASSIST Conference.  1up 6up
  • Statistical Literacy at Augsburg, March 2003 Project Status.   1up, 6up
  • Proposed Survey of Business Statistics Teachers, 8/2002 MSMESB  6up 1up
  • Student Difficulties Reading Tables of Ratios.  12/2001  US Bureau of Census  6up
  • Statistical Literacy: How Does It Relate to Quantitative Literacy.  PKAL Snowbird, UT  7/2001.  Abstract6up1up
  • Effectiveness of Statistics in Schools of Business.  6/2001 MSMESB  Troy NY  1up
  • The Grenada Conjectures: The Future of Statistical Education.   University of Grenada 1/2001.  1up  6up
  • Application for ASA/NSF/BLS/Census Research Program 12/2000
  • Teaching Conditional Thinking Using Ratios.  Western Conference on Teaching Statistics (WCTS1)  3/2000  Notes
  • Teaching Statistics Using Relevant Data.  Western Conference on Teaching Statistics (WCTS1)  3/2000  6up
  • Grammar of Statistics: Rates, Percentages and Risk.  3/2000 Augsburg College   6up
  • Statistical Literacy: Numbers as Information.  Wendy Treadwell  UMn  2/2000   6up
  • Statistical Literacy: Standards for Content.   11/1999  AMATYC  6up
  • Statistical Literacy: Reading Rates and Percents.   10/1999  APDU  6up

W. M. Keck Statistical Literacy Project at Augsburg College (2001-2005):


Statistical Literacy Sessions (1998 - 2013) organized by Milo Schield

2013 Statistical Literacy #16 (ASA, Montreal)  Organizer and chair: Milo Schield (50 attendees)

The Relevance of Rhetoric to Statistical Literacy, Joel Best  Abstract  

Getting to know your variables: A critical element of a statistical analysis, Jane Miller. Abstract   Audio  1up   6up

Statistics Education: Steadfast or Stubborn?     Milo Schield. Abstract   6up  1up  Audio

Challenging Statistical Claims in the Media Course and Gender Effects, Rose Martinez-Dawson  Abstract   Audio  1up  6up

Key Components of Numeracy Infusion Course for Higher Education.  Esther Wilder   Handout  Abstract  1up    6up

2012 Statistical Literacy #15 (ASA, San Diego CA) Organizer and chair: Milo Schield (50-60 attendees)

Is Statistical Literacy at Risk with Common Core Standards? Kathryn Hall Abstract 6up

Teaching Quantitative Reasoning Skills: A Numeracy Infusion Course for Higher Education (NICHE), Esther Wilder Abstract 6up Handout

Clinician Numeracy Clinical Numeracy - Getting the Gist of Health Risks, Tanner Caverly et al.  Abstract  6up  Talk

How Economic and Social Statistics became the Stepchildren of the Profession,  Othmar Winkler Abstract

Lost: Assessing Student Survival Skills in the Statistical Wilderness using Real Data, Marc Isaacson Abstract  6up

How Causal Heterogeneity Can Influence Statistical Significance in Clinical Trials, Milo Schield  6up 

2011 Statistical Literacy (ISI, Dublin, Ireland) STS08. Organizer and chair: Milo Schield

Making Sense of Statistical Studies, Roxy Peck 6up

Statistics in the News, Nancy Reid and Jean-François Plante

Interpreting Economic and Social Data, Othmar Winkler

Multivariate Thinking in Precollege Social Sciences, James Nicholson   ISI News  6up

Epidemiological Models and Spotty Statistics, Milo Schield ISI  6up

Teaching the Social Construction of Statistics, Milo Schield IASE  6up

2011   US Supreme Court: Statistical Significance not necessary for Causation. Late-Breaking Session (ASA, Miami FL). Chair: Milo Schield 6up  1up

Stephen T. Ziliak 1up, Joseph "Jay" Kadane, Donald Rubin and Daniel Kaplan 1up

2011 Statistical Literacy #14 (ASA, Miami FL). Organizer and chair: Milo Schield (50-60 attendees)

Pop-stats books and Statistical Education - Kaiser Fung, New York Univ.  1up.

Integrating Quantitative and Financial Literacy - Joseph Ganem, Loyola Univ., Maryland.  6up

Statistics and Clinical Trials: Past, Present and Future - Herb Weisberg, Correlation Research.   1up

Learning to Read the Numbers: Critical Literacy and Numeracy in K-8 Classrooms - David and Phyllis Whitin, Wayne State U.  1up

Assessing Quantitative Reasoning: What Do Freshmen Know? - Ermine Faith Orta, Nandini Kannan and Kimberly Massaro, Univ. Texas San Antonio. 6up

Describing Quantitative Relationships Using Informal Grammar, Milo Schield 6up 1up   Appendix  WB1  WB2

Teaching Statistics Using the News Media ­ T. Paulette Ceesay, 6up

2010 Statistical Literacy #13 (ASA, Vancouver CA). Organizer and chair: Milo Schield (90 attendees)

Numbers in Everyday Life: A Short Course for Adults   Gerald Hahn, Necip Doganaksoy, Ricki Lewis, Jane Oppenlander and Josef Schmee    6up

Statistical Literacy for Managers: Analyzing Time Series data by Anders and Britt Wallgren (Sweden)   6up

The Undetectable Difference: An Experimental Look at the “Problem” of p-Values. Bill Goodman (Univ. Toronto)   6up

Probability in Decline   Dean Brooks (Ekaros Analytical Inc.)  6up   Blog

Teaching Statistical Literacy as a Quantitative Rhetoric Course  John Schmit (Augsburg College)  6up

The Social Construction of Ranks   Milo Schield (Augsburg College)    6up

2010 Statistics for Non-Quantitative Majors (ICOTS8 in Ljubljana, Slovenia)  Organizer and chair: Milo Schield

        Using media reports to promote statistical literacy for non-quantitative majors  Stephanie Budgett, Maxine Pfannkuch (NZ).     6up

        Luring non-quantitative majors into advanced statistical reasoning; luring statistics educators into real statistics    James Nicholson, Jim Ridgway, Sean McCusker 

        Using a Five Step Framework for interpreting tables and graphs in their contexts    Marian Kemp and Barry Kissane (AU)   6up 

        How we can all learn to think critically about data   Ian Gordon, Sue Finch (AU)    6up

        Association-Causation Problems in News Stories.  Milo Schield, Augsburg College.  ICOTS-8   2010.  See also Merriam-Webster (1994): Usage of "times".

2009 Statistical Literacy #12 (ASA, Washington DC). Organizer and chair: Milo Schield (130 attendees)

Statistical Challenges in Medical Research: What Consumers Need to Know   Ronald R Gauch (Marist College)  6up

The Cult of Statistical Significance  Stephen Ziliak (Roosevelt U.) and Deirdre N. McCloskey (Univ. Illinois, Chicago)  4up  6up

Spinning Heads and Spinning News: Statistics in the Media  Rebecca Goldin (George Mason U.):  6up

Know Your Chances: Curriculum to Help Students Be Better Consumers of Statistics  Steven Woloshin, Lisa Schwartz (Dartmouth)  2up  

2009 Numeracy (ASA, Washington DC). Organizer: Milo Schield.  Chair: Paul J. Fields

Confound those Speculative Statistics  Milo Schield (Augsburg)  6up

Distinguishing Association from Causation in Media Headlines.  Milo Schield (Augsburg) and Robert Raymond (St. Thomas)  6up

Formal Debates to Clarify the Objectives of an Intro Stats Course. Dan Schafer (Oregon State, Author of the Statistical Sleuth):  4up
                 See also the Vaccination Debate 4up.

How Prepared are Doctoral Dissertation Committees?   Rossi Hassad (Mercy College)

Taking Confounding Seriously with Introductory Students.  Daniel Kaplan (Macalester College)

2008 Statistical Literacy #11 (ASA, Denver, CO). Organizer: Milo Schield.  Chair: Larry Lesser  (70 attendees)

Interpreting the substantive significance of multivariate regression coefficients. Jane Miller (Rutgers University). 1up slides.

Just Plain Data Analysis. Gary Klass (Illinois State University).  6up slides

Using Simulation to Teach Statistical Literacy. Marc Isaacson, W. M. Keck Statistical Literacy Project. 6up slides.

Numbers in the News: A Survey. Robert Raymond and Milo Schield, W. M. Keck Statistical Literacy Project. Data6up and 1up

von Mises' Frequentist Approach to Probability. Milo Schield and Tom Burnham, W. M. Keck Statistical Literacy Project.  6up

Student Attitudes Toward Statistics at Augsburg: 2003-2004. Milo and Cynthia Schield, W. M. Keck Statistical Literacy Project.  6up

2007 Statistical Literacy #10 (ASA, Salt Lake City, UT). Chair: Paul J. Fields

Statistics for Innumerate Journalists.   Stephen Doig, Walter Cronkite Professor of Journalism (Arizona State Univ.) Slides 4up 
                     See also Reporting with the Tools of Social Science.  Nieman Foundation, Harvard (2008)

Quantitative Reasoning: An Activity-Based Course. Kay Somers (Moravian College)   6up

Grammar of Statements Involving "Chance". Milo Schield (Augsburg) and Tom Burnham (Cognitive Consulting) 6up  1up

Numbers in the News: A Survey.   Milo Schield (Augsburg) & Cynthia Schield (Former co-publisher of the Napa County Record) 6up, 1up, Data

2006 Statistical and Quantitative Literacy #9 (ASA, Seattle, WA)  Organizer and chair: Milo Schield

Pedagogical Challenges of Quantitative Literacy.   Bernie Madison, President of the National Numeracy Network. Slides 6up

Increasing Quantitative Literacy through the Mathematics across the Community College Curriculum Project.

Rebecca Hartzler (Seattle Community College) and Kim Rheinlander (Dartmouth).  6up

Quirks of Rhetoric: a Quantitative Analysis of Quantitative Reasoning in Student Writing. Neil Lutsky  (Carleton College)

Common Misconceptions in Statistical Literacy. Marc Isaacson (Augsburg College)   6up

Percentage Charts in USA Today Snapshots Online.   Milo Schield (Augsburg College)  Print version6up

2005 Statistical Literacy #8 (ASA, Minneapolis, MN). Organizer and chair: Milo Schield (90 attendees)

What Can 'CSI' Teach Us about Statistical Literacy  Jane Miller (Rutgers University)

Epidemiology for Teaching Statistics  Chris Olsen (Cedar Rapids Iowa schools)

Toys, Tales and a Journalist's View of Statistics  Lewis Cope (co-author of News and Numbers)

Statistical Literacy: An Online Course at Capella University  Marc Isaacson (Augsburg College)

On-line Ratio Statement Validator, Burnham and Schield,  Slides 6up 1up

Statistical Literacy and Chance, Milo Schield (Augsburg College) Slides 6up  1up

2004 Statistical Literacy #7 (ASA, Toronto, Canada).  Organizer and chair: Milo Schield

Teaching Statistical Principles using Epidemiology,  Donna Stroup (CDC)

Planning a Statistical Literacy Course  Robert Hayden (Plymouth State University)

Statistics for Political Science Majors  Gary Klass (Illinois State University)

Confounder-Resistance and Confounder Intervals for a Binary Confounder, Schield & Burnham Slides 1up 6up

Reviewer  Brian Jersky  ASA 2004

2003 Statistical Literacy #6 (ASA, San Francisco, CA)  Organizer and Chair: Milo Schield

Understanding Scientific Reasoning, Ronald Giere (U. Mn) & Leslie Burkholder (Canada)

Journalism, Computer Assisted Reporting and Statistical Literacy, Brant Huston (Director IRE: Investigative Reporters and Editors)

Subjective Statistical Inference Based On Pure Associations  Robyn M. Dawes (Carnegie Mellon)

Review of Statistical Literacy Course Design at Augsburg: 2002-2003  Julie Naylor & Bill Jasperson  (Augsburg)

Confounder-Induced Spuriosity and Reversal: Algebraic Conditions for Binary Data, Schield & Burnham Slides 1Up 6Up

2002 Statistical Literacy #5 (ASA, New York City, NY).  Organizer and Chair: Milo Schield

Using Quantitative Data to Study Social Phenomena: Some Ignored Issues  Stanley Lieberson (Harvard)

People Count: The Social Construction of Statistics   Joel Best (University of Delaware)

Bag of Tricks for Teaching Statistics, Andrew Gelman (Colombia)

The Mission of STATS,  S. Robert Lichter, President of STATS  (Presented by Ian Murray)

Algebraic Relationships in 2x2 Tables, Schield & Burnham Original ASA-published versionUpdated version  [Original is not original]

2001 Statistical Literacy #4 (ASA, Atlanta, GA)  Organizer and Chair: Milo Schield

The Tyranny of Numbers,  Nicholas Eberstadt (AEI: American Enterprise Institute)

More Guns; Less Crime.  John Lott (University of Chicago and Yale)

Student-Centered Education,  Deborah Rumsey (University of Ohio)

A Post-Modern View of Statistical Education,  Gudmund Iversen (Swarthmore College)

Statistical Literacy: Reading Tables of Rates and Percentages, Milo Schield (Augsburg College)  Jenkins Appendix version

2000 Statistical Literacy #3 (ASA, Indianapolis, IN)  Organizer and Chair: Milo Schield

Thinking Big About Statistics.    John Bailar III (Univ. Chicago)  See Excerpts from "A Larger Perspective"

Cross-Level Inference as an Identification Problem.   W. Phillips Shively (Univ. Minnesota)

A Case Story in the Teaching of Observational Studies.   Chamont (Wei-hong) Wang (College of New Jersey)

A First Year Interdisciplinary QR Course: A Pre-Statistics Course  Jabon and Narasimhan (De Paul U)

Teaching Statistics For Use In Epidemiology  Joe H. Abramson (Hebrew University)

Statistical Literacy: Describing and Comparing Rates and Percentages Milo Schield (Augsburg College) 6up

1999 Critical Thinking in Observational Studies #2 (ASA, Baltimore, MD)

How to Help Reporters Tell The Truth  Victor Cohn (Former Washington Post Science editor)

Population Growth and Propensity: Complex Observational Studies.   Thomas Wonnacott (Canada)

Teaching Causal Inference in Experiments and Observational Studies  Donald Rubin (Harvard)

Simpson's Paradox and Cornfield's Conditions, Milo Schield (Augsburg College)

Discussant/Reviewer: Gudmund Iversen

1998 New Directions in Introductory Statistics #1 (ASA, Dallas, TX).  Organizer and Chair: Milo Schield

Statistics for First Year Liberal Arts Students  Gary Smith (Pomona College)

Educating Everyone: Statistical Methods and Statistical Literacy.  Jessica Utts (U. California, Davis)

* Teaching Statistics Without Formulas.  Gudmund Iversen (Swarthmore) See Why Should We Even Teach Statistics? A Bayesian Perspective

Eight Features of an Ideal Introductory Statistics Course.  Donald Macnaughton (Toronto)

Statistical Literacy and Evidential Statistics, Milo Schield (Augsburg College)  1up

* Hard copy available


Donna Stroup, Richard Goodman, Ralph Cordell and Richard Scheaffer

Teaching Statistical Principles Using Epidemiology. The American Statistician

2004 (Pay Access) From Abstract:  "we argue that epidemiology, the scientific basis for public health, provides a useful and motivating context for teaching statistical principles and methods and suggest that examples from this and other public health sciences be used in the teaching of mathematics and science courses in high school and college."

Related papers involving "Statistical Literacy":

Organizing Data in Tables and Charts: Different Criteria for Different Tasks.   Jane Miller,  Teaching Statistics (Fall, 2007)

Briggs' QL/QR Site  William Briggs, co-author of Statistical Reasoning for Life

How did Teaching Introductory Statistics get to be so Complicated ?!?  Roxy Peck, USCOTS 2005  1upWeb

Data Aggregation and Simpson's Paradox in Index Numbers  (Fee) Stan Lipovetsky & Micheal Conklin, Eur. J. of Op. Res., 172#1.  2004

Three Paradoxes  Howard Wainer, Nat. Bd of Medical Examiners.  Draft of Paper for The American Statistician 2004

Statistical Literacy -- A Kind of Numeracy by Laszlo Holka (Hungarian Central Statistical Office)

Introductory Statistics Teaching at UCLA: Overview and Proposal by Jan De Leuw and Donald Ylvisaker

Developing a Compulsory University-wide Statistical Literacy Program by Helen Carter and Catherine Milne 2000  Abstract  Conference

Teaching Statistical Literacy  by Patricia B. Cerrito 1999

Epidemiology Faces Its Limits (copy) by Gary Taubes: Science (1995: 269. pp 164-169).  Biostatistics-Wisconsin.

The Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) Statement: Guidelines for Reporting Observational Studies by Erik von Elm.

Instructional Design and the Development of Statistical Literacy  Kenneth Bessant in Teaching Sociology, April 1992

Related papers at ASA JSM 2008:

Common Issues in SATS Research by Candace Schau 2008 ASA

Survey of Attitudes Toward Statistics: An Exploratory Look by Marjorie Bond 2008 ASA

Students’ Attitudes Toward Statistics: Are there differences among various majors?  by Rebecca Pierce and Molly Jameson  2008 ASA

Understanding the Difficulty in Teaching Sampling Distribution, Margin of Error and Statistical Inference by Kriska, Fulcomer and Sass 2008 ASA

Applying Resampling to Analyze the Sensitivity of a Hypothesis Test to Confounding by William Goodman 2008 ASA

Related papers at ASA JSM 2007:

Expectations for Statistical Literacy: A Survey Of College Faculty by David Kriska (Walden U.), Mark Fulcomer (Stockton) & Marcia Sass (UMD-NJ),  2007 ASA

Students’ Reasoning about Summary Measures from Histograms and Stem-and-Leaf Plots by Linda Cooper and Felice Shore (Towson University), 2007 ASA

Improving Statistical Posters by Di Cook (Iowa State University), 2007 ASA

Related papers at IASE 2007 Guimarães, Portugal.

Assess Statistical Literacy by Stephanie Budgett and Maxine Pfannkuch.  2007 IASE

Building Statistical Literacy Assessment Tools with the IASE ISLP by Juana Sanchez.  2007 IASE

Designing Open Questions for the Assessment of Conceptual Understanding by Nick Broers.  2007 IASE

Embedding Statistical Assessment within Cross-Curricular Materials by Jim Ridgway, James Nicholson and Sean McCusker 2007 IASE

Assessing Understanding of the Concept of Interaction in Analysis of Variance by Kathy Green 2007 IASE

Using Peer Assessment of Project Presentations to Develop Skills as Consumers of Statistical Information by Michelle Sisto. 2007 IASE

Doing Statistics versus Understanding Statistics by Christine Duller 2007 IASE/ISI

Related papers at ICOTS-7 2006 Brazil:

The Worth of Data: The Tale of an Experience for Promoting and Improving Statistical Literacy, Giovanni Barbieri and Paola Giacché

Related papers at ASA JSM 2006:

Expectations for Statistical Literacy: A Comparison among Professions by Kriska, Fulcomer and Sass.  2006 ASA

Related papers at ASA JSM 2005:

Matching with Multiple Control Groups, and Adjusting for Group Differences by Rubin and Stuart 2005 ASA

Direct and Indirect Effects by Judea Pearl 2005 ASA

Comments on the Papers Presented in the Session on Causal Inference with Problematic Control Groups by Gastwirth 2005 ASA

Critical Values: Connecting Ethics, Service Learning and Social Justice to Life Our World by Lesser 2005 ASA

Reflections on Training, Experience and Introductory Statistics: A Mini Survey of Tertiary Level Statistics Instructors Hassad 2005 ASA

Examining the Introductory Statistics Course for Business and Economics Through Its Textbooks by McKenzie 2005 ASA

Related papers at USCOTS 2005:

Are We Teaching the Right Material in Introductory Statistics? by Jerry Reiter.  2005 USCOTS

What defines a "Statistically Literate" citizen? by Jerry Moreno.  2005 USCOTS

Statistics in the News by E. Jacquelin Dietz.  2005 USCOTS

Related papers at ISI 55 (2005):

UIS: Measuring Statistical Literacy by Denise Lievesley, 2005 ISI

Statistics for Life: What Statistical Ideas Matter Most and Why? by Nick Fisher, 2005 ISI

Assessing statistical literacy in graduate level statistics education by Enriqueta D. Reston, 2005 ISI

Numeracy Counts in the Statistical Reasoning Equation by Therese Wilson and Helen MacGillivray, 2005 ISI

Non-specialist Users and their Information Needs: Exploratory study at US Bureau of Labor Statistics by Iddo Gal & John Bosley, 2005 ISI

The Role of Official Statistics Agencies in the Promotion of Statistical Literacy Among Students by Fredrick W H Ho, 2005 ISI

Related papers at ASA JSM 2004:

Conveying the Core Concepts by John D. McKenzie, ASA 2004

Trashball: A Logistic Regression Classroom Activity by Christopher Morell and Richard Auer, ASA 2004

Using Journal Articles in Introductory Statistics by John Turner ASA 2004

History of Science and Statistical Education: Examples from Fisherian and Pearsonian schools by Chung Ho Yu (Alex) Arizona State, ASA 2004

 Related papers at ASA JSM 2003:

Student Attitudes: The Other Important Outcome in Statistical Education by Candace Schau ASA 2003

Some Difficulties Learning Histograms by Carl Lee and Maria Meletiou-Mavrotheris ASA 2003

Teaching Introductory Statistics in the Social & Behavioral Sciences by Hassad ASA 2003

Restructuring Introductory Courses at Penn State  by Harkness, Buchanan, Heckard and Rosenberger ASA 2003

Related papers at IASE 2001:

Statistical Literacy and Statistical Competence in the New Century by David Moore IASE 2001 Slides

Statistics Literacy by Brian Phillips IASE 2001 Slides

Related papers at ISI 2001:

Statistical Dead Heat and the Mass Media  Douglas Lonnstrom (Siena College in Loudonville NY), 2001 ISI

Introductory Statistics Courses for Non-Statistics Majors at Colleges and Universities by P. K. Ito,  2001 ISI.

Larry Lesser

Donald Macnaughton (MatStat Research Consulting, Toronto Canada)

Statistical Literacy and Reasoning: American Educational Research Association, April, 2000

  • Components of Statistical Thinking by Beth Chance (Calif. Polytechnic State University)
  • Bayesian Statistics:

    Dean Brooks, President of Ekaros.

  • Practical Applications of Benford's Law for Integer Quantities  ASA 2002 JSM
  • War, Politics and Customer Loyalty: Forecasting Benford's Law  2001 Frequencies

    Edward Tufte

    Statistical Literacy Programs or Ideas


    WEB SOURCES ON CHANCE AND DATA ANALYSIS:

    BOOKS

    ORGANIZATIONS:

    International Association for Statistical Education

  • Statistical Literacy and the Media by Podehl ICOTS-6 2002
  • Statistics in the Classroom: Learning to Understand Societal Issues by Podehl IASE Berlin 2002
  • Teaching Economic Statistics in the Internet Era by Bregar IASE Berlin 2002

    Woodrow Wilson Foundation, National Council on Education, Quantitative Literacy

  • Reflections on Quantitative Literacy  by Lynn Steen July, 2001
  • Reflections on Quantitative Literacy (Getting To Work) by Bernie Madison MAA 7/2001
  • National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM)

  • Mathematics Necessary?  by William Dudley, March 1998 (Start on Page 2)
  • Mathematics Equals Opportunity  by Richard Riley, March 1998 (Start on Page 3)
  • Mathematics Association of America (MAA)

  • Mathematics For Business  by Richard Thompson, Arizona State University, 11/2002
  • Assessment of General Education Mathematics Courses’ Contribution to Quantitative Literacy.  By Aimee J. Ellington for MAA SAUM
  • Center for Disease Control (CDC)

    International Statistical Institute (ISI)    International Statistical Review (ISR)

    CONFERENCES


    JOURNALS

    Statistical Education Research Journal (IASE)

    The American Statistician (TAS)

    2003, Vol. 57 #2

    • Statistical Literacy: How You Can Help  by Jessica Utts.   Abstract 

      Excerpts: "To me, statistical literacy has been achieved when someone not only understands a news story about a statistical study, but also knows what additional information about the study is needed before a wise decision can be made. And ultimately, the goal of achieving statistical literacy is to be able to make wise decisions when appropriate information is provided."

    • What Educated Citizens Should Know About Statistics and Probability  by Jessica Utts  Abstract 

      Excerpts: "There are of course many important topics that need to be discussed in an elementary statistics course. For this article, I have selected seven topics that I have found to be commonly misunderstood by citizens, including the journalists who present statistical studies to the public." "1. When it can be concluded that a relationship is one of cause and effect, and when it cannot, including the difference between randomized experiments and observational studies.  2. The difference between statistical significance and practical importance, especially when using large sample sizes. 3. The difference between  finding “no effect” or “no difference” and finding no statistically significant effect or difference, especially when using small  sample sizes.  4. Common sources of bias in surveys and experiments, such as poor wording of questions, volunteer response, and socially desirable answers.  5. The idea that coincidences and seemingly very improbable events are not uncommon because there are so many possibilities. 6. “Confusion of the inverse” in which a conditional probability in one direction is confused with the conditional probability in the other direction. 7. Understanding that variability is natural, and that 'normal' is not the same as 'average.'"

    • Teaching for Statistical Literacy and Services of Statistical Agencies by Iddo Gal  Abstract:  Increasing attention is given to the importance of developing statistical literacy of citizens and students. This article examines approaches to teaching for statistical literacy and identifies areas that need attention, in light of limitations on skill transfer and reliance on exemplars that illustrate problematic reports in the media. The article discusses the potential role of products of statistics agencies in education for statistical literacy. Implications for needed collaboration between educators and statistics agencies and for research are examined. Excerpts:  [1] "For instance, in a survey of more than 240 instructors of introductory statistics (Garfield 2000) less than 25% said they “frequently used” discussions of statistics in the media, and roughly half indicated they never ask students to critique news articles in classroom assessments. It seems that many instructors neither teach for statistical literacy nor assess it."  [2] Discussion: "First, it is difficult to expect students to develop statistical literacy through instruction on general principles of statistics and personal experience in data analysis, due to limitations on skill transfer, lack of familiarity with critical questions, and inattention to dispositions that support statistically literate behavior. Second, it is difficult to expect students to develop full statistical literacy through instruction that presents only negative examples for statistical reports, that is based only on brief media reports, and that does not provide models for effective or fair statistical reporting."  [3] "Given the limitations of each of the methods outlined earlier, and the inattention to assessment of statistical literacy skills (Garfield 2000), educators and statisticians should re-examine their educational expectations regarding the efficacy of current efforts to develop statistical literacy skills of students at the college or high-school levels. It also seems prudent to consider Moore’s (2001) recent call for “diminished expectations,” a proposal that instructors in introductory statistics courses cannot teach all the topics they hope to cover, given the need to teach at a pace and depth that enable students to construct their own understanding. If Moore’s call is accepted, serious attention to statistical literacy issues (in terms of both skills and dispositions) cannot be accomplished within an introductory course focused on core statistical topics, unless educators find ways to (a) address both core issues and statistical literacy issues at the same time, and (b) also assess students’ actual gains in statistical literacy skills. Otherwise, statistical literacy will remain a lofty goal that is hardly realized in regular introductory courses.  Where this is the case, separate courses focused on statistical literacy will have to be planned."

    • The Getting of Wisdom: Educating Statisticians to Enhance their Clients Numeracy  by Eric Sowey Abstract  Excerpts: "Neglect of numeracy is becoming steadily more unsupportable, particularly in a democratic society." "Enhancing statistical literacy is today a pressing issue."  "It is my impression, however, that even in developed societies formal teaching aimed expressly at enhancing statistical literacy is still a fledgling enterprise, offered only in scattered locations and to relatively few people."

    1998, Vol. 52

    • Student Projects on Statistical Literacy and the Media by Gelman and Nolan with Bautista, Men and Warmerdam.   Articles
      Introduction:
      An important theme in an introductory statistics course is the connection between statistics and the outside world. This article describes some assignments that have been useful in getting students to learn how to gather and process information presented in the newspaper articles and scientific reports they read. We discuss two related assignments. For the first kind of assignment, students work through prepared instructional packets. Each packet contains a newspaper article that reports on a scientific study or statistical analysis, the original report on which the article was based, a worksheet with guidelines for summarizing the reported study, and a series of questions. In the second kind of assignment, each student is required to find a newspaper article themselves, track down the original report, summarize the study using our guidelines, and write a critique of the article. Here, we describe the guidelines we developed to help the student in reading the newspaper article and original source, and the procedures we used for each type of assignment. Examples of handouts and assignments appear as appendixes.

    ASA Journal of Statistical Education (JSE)

    JSE 2004 #10

    JSE 2002 #10

    JSE 2000 #8

    JSE 1999 November

    JSE 1999 July

    • Constructionism and Reductionism: Two Approaches to Problem-Solving and Their Implications for Reform of Statistics and Mathematics Curricula by Emmanuel N. Lazaridis, H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center & Research Institute, University of South Florida
    • Getting What You Pay For: The Debate Over Equity in Public School Expenditures by Deborah Lynn Guber, The University of Vermont

    JSE 1999 April

    JSE 1998 July

    JSE 1998 March

    JSE 1997 November

    JSE 1997 July

    JSE 1997 March

    JSE 1996 November

    JSE 1996 July

    JSE 1996 March

    JSE 1995 July

    JSE 1995 March

    JSE 1994 November

    JSE 1994 July

    JSE 1993 November

    ASA Presidential papers: http://client.norc.org/asapresidentialpapers.info/4_sub2.htm

    Jane Watson (author of Statistical Literacy at School).  Full references on papers referencing "statistical literacy" or "quantitative literacy."

    • Watson, J.M., & Kelly, B.A. (in press). The development of conditional probability reasoning. International Journal of Mathematical Education in Science and Technology.

    • Watson, J.M. (2006). Issues for statistical literacy in the middle school. In A. Rossman & B. Chance (Eds.), Proceedings of the Seventh International Conference on Teaching Statistics: Working cooperatively in statistics education, Salvador, Brazil. [CDRom]. Voorburg, The Netherlands: International Association for Statistical Education and the International Statistical Institute.

    • Watson, J.M. (2006). Statistical literacy at school: Growth and goals. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum. ISBN 0-8085-5398-7

    • Watson, J.M., Kelly, B.A., & Izard, J.F. (2005). Statistical literacy over a decade. In P. Clarkson, A. Downton, D. Gronn, M. Horne, A. McDonough, R. Pierce, & A. Roche (Eds.), Building connections: Theory, research and practice (Proceedings of the 28th annual conference of the Mathematics Education Research Group of Australasia, Melbourne, pp. 775-782). Sydney: MERGA.

    • Watson, J.M., & Callingham, R.A. (2005). Statistical literacy: From idiosyncratic to critical thinking. In G. Burrill & M. Camden (Eds.), Curricular Development in Statistics Education. International Association for Statistical Education (IASE) Roundtable, Lund, Sweden, 2004 (pp. 116-162). Voorburg, The Netherlands: International Statistical Institute

    • Watson, J.M. (2005). Assessing teachers’ knowledge for teaching quantitative literacy. Proceedings of the ICMI Third East Asian Conference on Mathematics Education. [CD ROM]. Shanghai, China.

    • Watson, J.M. (2005). Is statistical literacy relevant for middle school students? Vinculum, 42(1), 3-10.

    • Watson, J.M. (2005). Lessons from research: Students’ understanding of statistical literacy. In M. Coupland, J. Anderson, & T. Spencer (Eds.), Making mathematics vital (Proceedings of the 20th biennial conference of the Australian Association of Mathematics Teachers, Sydney, pp. 253-260). Adelaide, SA: AAMT, Inc.  ISBN 1-875900-58-6

    • Callingham, R.A., & Watson, J.M. (2005). Measuring statistical literacy. Journal of Applied Measurement, 6(1), 19-47.

    • Watson, J.M., & Shaughnessy, J.M. (2004). Proportional reasoning: Lessons from research in data and chance. Mathematics Teaching in the Middle School, 10, 104-109.

    • Watson, J.M. (2004). Quantitative literacy in the media: An arena for problem solving. Australian Mathematics Teacher, 69(1), 34-40.

    • Watson, J.M., & Kelly, B.A. (2003). The vocabulary of statistical literacy. In Educational Research, Risks, & Dilemmas: Proceedings of the joint conferences of the New Zealand Association for Research in Education and the Australian Association for Research in Education [CD-ROM]. Auckland, New Zealand, December, 2003. Available at: http://www.aare.edu.au/03pap/alpha.htm 

    • Watson, J.M., & Kelly, B.A. (2003). Inference from a pictograph: Statistical literacy in action. In L. Bragg, C. Campbell, G. Herbert, & J. Mousley (Eds.), Mathematics education research: Innovation, networking, opportunity (Proceedings of the 26th Annual Conference of the Mathematics Education Research Group of Australasia, Geelong, pp. 720-727). Sydney, NSW: MERGA.

    • Watson, J.M., & Callingham, R.A. (2003). Statistical literacy: A complex hierarchical construct. Statistics Education Research Journal, 2(2), 3-46. 

    • Watson, J.M. (2003). Statistical literacy at the school level: What should students know and do? In Bulletin of the International Statistical Institute 54th Session Proceedings Berlin (Volume LX, Book 2, Invited Papers, Topic 49, pp. 68-71). Berlin: ISI.

    • Watson, J.M., & Moritz, J.B. (2002). Quantitative literacy for pre-service teachers via the internet. Mathematics Teacher Education and Development, 4, 43-56.

    • Watson, J.M., & Moritz, J.B. (2002). Developing concepts of sampling for statistical literacy. In J. Sowder & B. Schappelle (Eds.), Lessons learned from research (pp. 117-124). Reston, VA: National Council of Teachers of Mathematics.

    • Watson, J.M. (2002). Discussion: Statistical literacy before adulthood. International Statistical Review, 70, 26-30.

    • Callingham, R.A., & Watson, J.M. (2002, December). Implications of differential item function in statistical literacy: Is gender still an issue? Refereed paper presented at the Measurement Special Interest Group of the Australian Association for Research in Education conference, Brisbane.

    • Watson, J.M., & Moritz, J.B. (2000). Development of understanding of sampling for statistical literacy. Journal of Mathematical Behavior, 19, 109-136.

    • Watson, J.M. (1999). The media, technology and statistical literacy for all. In Z. Usiskin (Ed.), Developments in school mathematics education around the world. Volume 4 (pp. 308-322). Reston, VA: National Council of Teachers of Mathematics.  [Refereed text of invited address at international conference.]

    • Watson, J.M., Moritz, J.B., & Pereira-Mendoza, L. (1998). Interpreting a graph in a social context. The Mathematics Educator, 3 (1), 61-71.

    • Watson, J.M. (1998). Statistical literacy: What’s the chance? Reflections, 23(1), 6-14. [Text of invited keynote to 1997 MANSW State conference]

    • Watson, J.M. (1998). Assessment of statistical understanding in a media context. In L. Pereira-Mendoza, L.S. Kea, T.W. Kee, & W. Wong (Eds.), Statistical education – Expanding the network (Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Teaching Statistics, Vol. 2, pp. 793-799). Voorburg: International Statistical Institute.

    • Watson, J.M. (1998). The role of statistical literacy in decisions about risk: Where to start. For the Learning of Mathematics, 18(3), 25-27.

    • Watson, J.M. (1997). Assessing statistical literacy using the media. In Gal & Garfield (Eds.), The Assessment Challenge in Statistical Education (pp. 107-121).

    • Pereira-Mendoza, L., Watson, J. M., & Moritz, J. B. (1995). What's in a graph? In A. Richards, G. Gillman, K. Milton, & J. Oliver (Eds.), Flair: Forging links and integrating resources (pp. 301-307). Adelaide, SA: Australian Association of Mathematics Teachers.  Abstract: What do students really think graphs mean? Based on interviews with students from Canada, Australia and Singapore, students' interpretations of different graphs are examined, and the implications of these differing interpretations for teaching are considered. Some examples of the potential of newspapers for developing statistical ideas for primary and secondary students are included

    • Watson, J.M. (1995). Statistical literacy: A link between mathematics and society. In A. Richards, G. Gillman, K. Milton, & J. Oliver (Eds.), Flair: Forging links and integrating resources (Proceedings of the 15th Biennial Conference of the Australian Association of Mathematics Teachers Inc., pp. 12-28). Adelaide, SA: AAMT, Inc.  [1995 Hanna Neumann Memorial Lecture].

    • Watson, J.M. (1995). Conditional probability: Its place in the mathematics curriculum. Mathematics Teacher, 88, 12-17.

    Weinberg, Clarice R. (1993). Toward a Clearer Definition of Confounding [Scan].  American Journal of Epidemiology.  Vol 137, Number 1, Jan 1, 1993.

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