
These webaccessible articles are relevant to the teaching of statistical
literacy. They
consider fundamental questions in statistical education that involve using
statistical associations in observational data (rather than random
assignment in experiments) to argue for causal connections.
"a clear understanding ... of statistical issues in
observational data is needed for statistical practice in the real world."
Stroup et al,
Teaching Statistical Principles Using
Epidemiology..., The American Statistician, Feb 2004. P. 77.
New Papers Listed in 2018 by month added.
(Year is when paper
was published)
03
Confounding and Cornfield: Back to the Future by Schield.
ICOTS10. Slides
Appendix
02
Schield StatLit
Highlights for 2017
02
Schield Papers:
Citations. As of Feb 2018.
02 Statistical Literacy and the LogNormal Distribution.
Title and Abstract by
Schield. Proposed for ASA JSM.
01
Confounding.
Wikipedia entry as of Jan 2018.
New Papers Listed in 2017 by month added.
(Year is when paper
was published)
11
Schield Papers:
Citations. As of November 2017.
10 Persuading with Numbers by Sue
Hum. TOC and
Introduction.
10 Mathematics is about the World.
Table of
Contents and chapter summaries. Robert E. Knapp.
10 National Numeracy Network Annual
Meeting @ Barnard College. Levels
of Numeracy slides.
Grammar: The Heart of Numeracy slides. By Milo Schield
09 Teaching Logistic Regression using OLS. ASA Proceedings Section Statistical Education (2017) by
Milo Schield Slides
Data
09
Simpson's Paradox: A Data Set and
Discrimination Case Study Exercise (2014) by Stan Taylor and Amy Mickel
JSE Data
Documentation
08
Variation: Explained
By vs. Caused By Using Excel By Milo Schield Research paper
08
Augsburg College:
Schield's Annual Report By Milo Schield (20162017)
06
GAISE 2016 promotes Statistical Literacy by Milo Schield SERJ
Special Statistical Literacy Issue (2017).
06
Statistical Tools and
Statistical Literacy: The Case of the Average by Iddo Gal (1994).
Teaching Statistics 2007. From ResearchGate
06 Statistical Literacy for Decision
Makers: Table of Contents by
Milo Schield
06
Lognormal
product of Normal Frequency distribution and LogNormal Severity
Distribution by Milo Schield
06
Median of
LogNormal given Mean and Std. Deviation by Milo Schield
06 Classifying Associations into ABC by
Milo Schield
AssociationCausation Survey
Schield
placement
06 My "Unsung Hero": The Little Engine
that Could. Alive+Kickin VoiceOver by Milo Schield.
Document Audio
05
Statistical Literacy: slides.
Invited presentation at Field's Institute's Center for Math Education by
Milo Schield.
Announcement 4/29/2017.
05 Helping English Language Learners
Navigate Probability Vocabulary and Concepts. USCOTS 2017. Amy Wagler
and Larry Lesser
Slides
05 National Numeracy Network
(NNN) Budget Proposal
by VP Milo Schield
05
Tom Burnham's
Accomplishments: 19952014. By Milo Schield
05 ISI Mission &Objectives
2017. ISI
Mission & Objectives 2016.
05
Dialogue: moving students from reference to critical data literacy. A Skit.
Data librarians.
05 Six Types Of Analyses Every Data
Scientist Should Know by Smith (2013).
One page summary
by Schield
05 Student Survey: of
Novak's Book: Business as a Vocation. Augsburg student in Key 490.
Schield is the instructor.
04 Using a common statistical test
(pvalues) all wrong.
Interview with
ASA Ron Wasserstein. Retraction Watch
04 Research Gate Total Citations of Selected Statistical Educators by
Others.
Tabulated by Milo Schield
04 Creating Funnel Charts in Excel 2013
by Milo Schield
Demo Data
03 Steen 2015 Obituaries:
St. Olaf,
Minneapolis,
MAA.
Biography
1999 QL
Bibliography [Created StatLit.org webpage for Lynn Steen)
03
Steen (1990): On the
Shoulders of Giants. National Academy of Science; National Academy
Press.
03
Steen (1998): CUPM  The First 40 Years.
03
Lynn Steen: Leadership by
Example. A Summary by Joel Cuningham (2013). Journal of Mathematics
Education at Teachers College.
03
QR for College Graduates: A Complement to the Standards. CUPM 1994
03 CUPM 1971:
Preparation for Graduate
work in Statistics.
Undergraduate Statistics
without Calculus.
03
Does Everybody Need to
Study Algebra? Steen (1992) Mathematics Teacher
03
Heeding the Call
for Change Suggestions for Curricular Action. Linda R. Sons,
Chair. (1994). MAA CUPM.
03
Mathematics and
Democracy: The Case for Quantitative Literacy. Executive Editor
Lynn Steen (2001). NCED
Full text.
Epilogue
03
Calculus for a New Century: A Pump, Not a Filter. Lynn Steen,
Editor (1987) MAA. National Resource Council.
03
Why Numeracy
Matters. Editors: Bernie Madison and Lynn Steen (2003). NCED.
03
Foundations of Mathematics: Unsolvable Problems by Lynn Steen (1975).
Science, AAAS
03
On Being a Mathematical Citizen:
The Natural NExT Step. Lynn Steen (2007). MAA 9th Leitzel
Lecture.
03
Analysis 2000 : Challenges and Opportunities. Lynn Steen (2000)
03
Reflections on Mathematical
Patterns, Relationships, and Functions. Steen (1998) Minnesota
K12 Mathematics Framework, SciMathMN
03
A Conversation about
Quantitative Literacy. Bernie Madison and Lynn Steen interview
each other. Numeracy (2009)
03
Steen (2000) reviews Dewdney: A
Mathematical Mystery Tour. Notices of the AMS
03
Facing Facts: Achieving
Balance in High School Mathematics. Lynn Steen (2007)
Mathematics Teacher
03
How Mathematics
Counts by Lynn Steen (2007) ASCD.
03 [16 more papers by Lynn Steen added to
StatLit.org that need to be entered here]
03
Schield Sample Bios by Length (2016)
03 Downs Syndrome by Birth Order and
Mother's Age by Milo Schield
Slides
PPTX
March 20, 2017
03
Mathematics and
Numeracy: Two Literacies, One Language by Lynn Steen (2001
02
Statistical
Significance: A simple sufficient condition for Skew2 by Milo Schield.
Research Paper.
02
Updating the GAISE College
Report: A Survey. Michelle Everson (2015), Chair. ASA.
01
Evaluating Some Popular Introductory Statistics Textbooks by
Halvorsen, Lubecke, Whittinghill, Yates and McKenzie". ASA JSM Fall 2016
01
Correlation analysis:
influence of 3rd variable on R^2 and R(Y,X1X2) by Milo Schield (2017)
01
Evaluating Some Popular Introductory Applied Statistics Textbooks by
Halvorsen et al. (2016) ASA
01
Offering Stat 102: Social Statistics for Decision Makers by Milo Schield.
IASE Roundtable, Berlin.
New Papers Listed in 2016 (By
month added. Year is when paper was published)
12
Student
Survey Results for MIS264 D1 Fall 2016.
Stat 102 versus
Stat 101 Course Compare. By Milo Schield, Augsburg College. Fall 2016
12 Excel2013: Create centered
stacked 100% bar charts for ordinal data with even & odd # choices.
By Milo Schield
Results
12 Effect size really does matter —
Jeffrey Witmer, Oberlin College ASA JSM Fall 2016
12 Type &
Quality of Graphs Used in the ASA/NCTM Annual Poster Competition (20132016)
by Symanzik, Robbins and Heiberger. ASA JSM Fall 2016.
12 Student Ratings of the Utility of Key
Concepts in Introductory Statistics by Rossi Hassad ASA/JSM Fall, 2016, Mercy
College, Dobbs Ferry, New York,
12 Students’ performance and attitudes towards a
flipped classroom for introductory statistics. Carl Lee, Central
Michigan U., Mt. Pleasant, MI ASA/JSM
12
Incorporating Visual Literacy
Standards in an Introductory Statistics Course. Jill Young, Claudia
Ruediger. SE Missouri State U., Cape Girardeau, MO ASA/JSM
12 PValues and the Likelihood Principle
by Andrew Neath, ASA/JSM Fall 2015. Southern Illinois University,
Edwardsville, IL.
12 The Evaluation of a Pedagogical Tool for
Quantitative Literacy by Gerald Iacullo, ASA/JSM Fall 2016. Berkeley
College, NY, NY
12 Do the
Write Thing: Bolstering Student Comprehension in Introductory Statistics
by Bernard L. Dillard, ASA/JSM 2016. Fashion Institute of Technology.
12
Restructuring Introductory
Statistics Courses to Free Class Time ... by Bonnie Moon, Craig Johnson
and Ryan Cromar. ASA/JSM Fall 2016 BYUIdaho
12 Why Election Polls Are Often Wrong.
Schield CTC Slides. Why
Clinton Lost (Trump Won) Slides
CTC.
Exit Poll Data.
Calculate Chance of
Winning
10 Offering STAT 102: Social Statistics for
Decision Makers. Schield IASE Roundtable in Berlin. July, 2016.
10 Augsburg Student Evaluations of STAT 102: Social
Statistics for Decision Makers. Schield ASA JSM. Aug, 2016
09 Surveys and
Margin of Error by Milo Schield Technical Paper
Slides
Classifying Studies by Schield Technical Paper
Slides
09 Politics & Policies: What
can statistics tell us? API205
by Deborah Hughes Hallett 2016. Harvard Kennedy.
Course Full
syllabus
Syllabus (topics
only)
09 1999
Survey form
Statistical Literacy Topics: What should be taught? Survey form by
Milo Schield
09 1999
Slides Statistical
Literacy. Talk by Milo Schield at Univ. of Wollongong, Australia
09 1998
Slides Evidential Statistics.
Talk by Milo Schield at ASA JSM.
09 1998
Slides Teaching Introductory
Statistics to College Students. Talk by Milo Schield at Univ. of Xian, China
09 1998
Slides Probability: Classical
and Bayesian. Talk by Milo Schield at Univ. of Northern Iowa
08
Student
Survey Results
by Milo Schield, Augsburg College MIS 264 D3 Fall 2016
PDF
08 Logistic Regression:
Comparing MLE with OLS1 (with 'nudge') by Milo Schield Technical Paper Fall
2016
Slides
Demo
Excel
08 Q/L and
Statistical Literacy by Milo Schield Panel presentation MAA MathFest
Fall 2016.
Slides
Audio
07 Confounding  A
Big Idea by Milo Schield ASA JSM Fall 2016.
Slides
Audio
07 IASE Roundtable:
Schield Workshop. Day 2: Slides
2A
2B
2C.
Audio: 2A(Social Statistics)
2B(Confounding)
2C (Inference) July
2016
06
2016 IASE
Roundtable Detailed Schedule by Milo Schield
06 Excerpts from "What Should [College] Graduates Know?" by N. Lemann
(2016) Dean Emeritus Columbia. Excerpted by M. Schield.
06
Statistical Literacy at Augsburg by Milo
Schield (2016)
06 Modelling statistically
significant Skewness in samples from a Normal Population (Excel 2013).
Output Milo Schield (2016)
06 Sampling distribution of
skewness from a Normal population. (Excel 2013, n=10):
Output Milo Schield
06 Averaging LogNormal Losses as a function of the number of losses.
Output
Milo Schield (2016)
05 Sum of K Identical LogNormals (Excel 2013):
Output Milo Schield
05 Product of Two Random Variables:
Normal and LogNormal
Output; Both logNormal
Output.
Milo Schield (2016)
04
Treating Ordinal Scales as
Ordinal Scales. Thomas R. Knapp 1993 Nursing Research
04
Treating Ordinal Scales as
Interval Scales: An Attempt to Resolve the Controversy. Thomas R. Knapp
1990 Nursing Research
04
2016 JSM
Schieldselected papers and sessions
04
2016 JSM Schedule for
Sessions sponsored by Section on Statistical Education (single line
headings on a single page)
04
2016Q1: Research
Gate Citation statistics for selected statistical educators.
2016Q1: ResearchGate Citation
statistics for Schield papers.
03 Show
smaller SE for stratified than for simple random sample by Milo Schield
(2016)
03
Use Excel to
create Ranks and Percentiles from data by Milo Schield (2016)
01
Big Ideas for
Introductory Statistics by
Milo Schield. Paper proposal (Title and abstract) submitted for 2016
JSM
01
Logistic
Regression Using Excel by
Milo Schield. Virtual poster proposal for 2016 eCOTS
[Rejected]
01
Evidential Statistics by Milo
Schield. MSMESB 1998
01
MeanMedianCompare
in Excel by Milo Schield. Excel (*.xlsx) worksheet 2016
New Papers Listed in 2015 (By
month added)
12
Statistics in
Economics by
Peter Holmes. 1987
OCR version
12
What Does "100%
Juice" Mean? Exploring Adult Learners Informal Knowledge of Percent by
Ginsburg, Gal and Schuh (1995) NCAL Technical Report TR9506
12
Statistical
Tools and Statistical Literacy: The Case of the Average by Iddo Gal
(1994) Teaching Statistics, 17(3), 9799. Published online in
2002.
12
Adult's statistical literacy: meanings,
components, responsibility (with discussion and response) by Iddo Gal
(2002) International Statistical Review
12
Using Geometry
to Visualize ... Correlation and Regression by Kyle Nickodem, Ernest C.
Davenport, Ph.D., Qinjun Wang and Steven Culpepper, Ph.D.
12
Lynn Steen Eulogy by
Milo Schield. 2015
11
Statistical
Literacy, QR and QL by
Milo Schield. 1997 Working paper
11
Median Overlap,
Misclassification and Rsquared by
Milo Schield. 1997 Working paper
11
Working Paper:
Review of FischbeinSchnarch by
Milo Schield. 1997 RSSCSE. Suggested by Anne Hawkins.
11
2015 GAISE Update: Survey
Michelle Everson, Committee Chair. 2015
11
IASE 2016 Roundtable: Workshop
Proposal Milo Schield. 2015 Accepted.
10
US 2015
Wholesale InventorySales Ratios: Four Graphs
Collected by Milo Schield. 2015
10
Modeling Logistic Regression using MLE in Excel 2013. Milo Schield 2015.
1A: Output
Slides
Input
10 Modeling Logistic Regression
using OLS in Excel 2013. Milo Schield 2015. 1A:
Output
Slides
Input. 1C:
Output
Slides
Input
10
Confounding
variables in epidemiologic studies: Basics and Beyond by Farin Kamangar
in the 2012 Archives of Iranian Medicine.
10 1928
Moccasin Yearbook Morris Agricultural School in Morris MN.
Wilbur Schield
09
Statistical Inference for Managers
Milo Schield. 2015 ASA JSM
Slides
09
Current Landscape of Business Analytics and Data Science by Amy Phelps
and Kathryn Szabat. 2015 ASA JSM
slides
09
Prevalence of Statistical Terms in the
Harvard Business Review. Milo Schield (Data
only).
09
Data Science: Statistics or Computer Science
Timothy Kyng, Anyse Bilgin and Busayasachee PuangNgern. 2015 IASE
Slides
08
Editorial
[banning NHST] by David Trafimow and Michael Marks in Basic and Applied
Social Psychology [BASP], 37:1–2, 2015
08 Planning an Academic Analytics
Program by Amy Phelps, Szabat and Knape. 2015 USCOTS
Slides
07
New StatLit.org web page for Jerome Cornfield
Added July 19, 2015.
07
US Treasury Income
Mobility Study US Internal Revenue Service 2008.
07
Chocolate Faster
WeightLoss Hoax by John Bohannon "I Fooled Millions Into Thinking
Chocolate Helps Weight Loss. Here's How"
07
Statistical Modelling:
Two Cultures by Leo Breiman in 2001 Statistical Science.
07
Problems with Using the
Normal Distribution – and Ways to Improve Quality and Efficiency of Data
Analysis by Eckhard Limpert and Werner Stahel. PLOS One 2011.
07
Lognormal Distributions across
the Sciences: Keys and Clues by Eckhard Limpert, Werner Stahel and
Markus Abbt. 2001 Bioscience Vol. 51 #5, P341352 and Errata.
07
The Lognormal
Distribution (Excerpts: P 12 and 111113) by Aitchison and Brown
1957
06
Lynn Steen Obituary June 21, 2015
Schield Eulogy to Lynn Steen
Added content to the Lynn Steen page.
06
Statistical Errors by Regina
Nuzzo in Nature Vol 506 Feb 13, 2014
Pdf
06
Aliens cause
Global Warming by Michael Crichton (2001) CalTech'
Pdf
Rejoinder
by Alden Griffin 2011.
06
Your Demand for Statistical Proof is
Racist by Candice Lanius.
Cyborgology 1/12/2015."demand for
statistical proof is blatant distrust of someone’s lived experience"
06
Are You Smarter than an 8th Grader
by Nicholas Kristof NY Times Apr 25, 2015. "Statistical literacy
should be part of every citizen’s tool kit"
Pdf
06
RSS: Call for Grant Ideas
by Royal Statistical Society (RSS UK). Jun 9, 2015. Suggestions
due by end of July 2015.
Pdf
05
What is Wrong with THE Introductory
Statistics Course by Milo Schield. 2015 USCOTS
05
USCOTS 2015 Statistical Literacy Roundtable: Questions and Answers by
Milo Schield
05
Translating Words into
Algebra. Posted at
Leeward CC Hawaii 2008
05
A Longitudinal Study of Pupils'
Probability Concepts by David Green. 1990 ICOTS.
04
Statisticians: Making our World a
Better Place (4.5 minute video) by Milo Schield. 4/2015 USCOTS
6up
1up
Text
04
Comments on ControlGroup Dropout in the
First HIVAIDS Drug Trial using AZT by Simon. EdStat List 2013.
04
2014 Movie
Viewings vs. BoxOffice Revenues 2/2015 News story
04
CausalImpact: Estimating Causal Impact in Time Series by Google 2014.
04
Schield's
Nomination Packet for 2015 USCOTS Lifetime Achievement Award by Lesser,
Kaplan and Moreno. USCOTS 2015.
Nomination only
04
Schield
Submission for Judea Pearl's Causality Prize for Best Course on Causality
by Schield 2/2015
03
Coincidences
are more likely than you think: The Birthday Paradox.
by Carla Santos and Cristina Dias, PT. Slides 7/2014. Statistics &
Math Sciences Workshop
03
NAS/NRC Assessing the
Reproducibility of Scientific Results workshop agenda Feb 2627/2015 in
Washington DC.
Results
03
Of PValues and Bayes: A Modest
Proposal by Steven N. Goodman (2001) Epidemiology.
[transition from Pvalue to minimum Bayes factor]
Probable Cause by Selke
03
Calibration of p Values for Testing Precise Null Hypotheses by Sellke,
Bayarri, and Berger 2001 American Statistician 55,1 p. 6271.
1987 BergerSelke
03
Difficulty Replicating Stereotype Threat and Women's Math Performance at Replication Index 2015
03
Amazing Coincidences [Author
unknown] Summarized from web in 2015.
03
Seven Wild
Historical Coincidences [Author unknown] Summarized from web in
2015.
03
Workshop Agenda: Reproducibility of Scientific Results NSA/NRC
Washington DC. Speakers include John Ioannidis and Mark Liberman.
Overview.
03
Why
Black English Does Not Add Up
by Joan Countryman (1987). Review of Eleanor Wilson's "Twice as Less:
Black English and the Performance of Black Students".
03
Twice as Less
by Milton Chen (1987). Review of Eleanor Wilson's "Twice as Less:
Black English and the Performance of Black Students".
03
Eleanor Wilson:
RIP 19272008 Author of "Twice as Less: Black English and the
Performance of Black Students". 2008 Washington Post obituary
03
Eleanor Wilson: RIP
19272008 Author of "Twice as Less: Black English and the Performance
of Black Students". 2008 Hawthorne School obituary
03
Download Twice as Less
(2nd ed.) by Eleanor Wilson
02
Statistical Significance
Shortcuts by Milo Schield. StatChat slides 2/24/2015
Papers: Chisq
Relative Risk
RR Calculator
02
Schield talks by location.
Talks outside the US.
02
Schield's JSM
Sessions involving Statistical Literacy. Presenters by year.
02
The metaphysical and epistemic status
of Chance. Email from Schield to William Briggs, February
2015.
02
From
epidemiological association to causation by Wakeford and McElvenny in
Occupational Medicine 57:464465. doi:10.1093/occmed/kqu088
02
Citations
involving Statistical Literacy as of December 2014 by Google Scholar
01
The Grenada Conjectures by
Milo Schield. Slides from a talk delivered at the University of Grenada on
January 18, 2001.
01
The Peter Holmes
Prize for Best Article in Teaching Statistics in 2013. Teaching
Statistics.
01
The Impact of Computers on School
Statistics Teaching by Peter Holmes. ICOTS 1986
01
Meet Common Core Standards with Statistics. Posted by Jeff Wyman on
November 13th, 2014.
Copy
01 1964 US Surgeon
General's Report AP News.
01
2002
History of Confounding by Jay P. Vandenbroucke. From The History
of Epidemiology. SPM47, p. 216224. [Excellent review of Cornfield's
contributions]
01
Social
Psychologist Stapel fakes data. 2011 Gonzales blog.
01
Statistical Literacy Guide by Paul Bolton. 2010 UK House of
Commons. Web
01 UNECE Making Data Meaningful:
Guide to Statistical Literacy. By Vitor Isakev. 2011 Slides.
01
UNECE Making Data
Meaningful: Part 4 Statistical Literacy. 2011. [Includes a
paragraph on this website]
01
SIGMAAQuantitative Literacy
2014 Newsletter. Estimation by Grawe; Reality Math by Sulock;
Math+Social Justice by Karaali/Khadjavi; What next by Piercey.
01
Pearl 2015
Causality Award: Call for Nominations. By ASA
New Papers Listed in 2014 (By
month added)
12
Vast
Majority of statistical analysis will not be performed by statisticians
June 14, 2013. Simply Statistics.
12
Simpson's Paradox in Psychological Science: a practical guide by Kievit,
Frankenhuis, Waldorp and Borsboom. Frontiers in Psychology. V 4; Article
513, Aug 2013
12
Statistical Literacy Explained by Paul Hewson in Teaching Statistics, p.
982. Feb 1. 2013
12
Headlines
in a MathematicallyLiterate World by Ben Orlin in the Huffington Post,
Dec 4, 2013. Checkout Orlin's blog:
mathwithbaddrawings.com
12
RSS GetStats
Statistical Literacy Campaign and Initiatives. 2014 Royal Statistical
Society. Also: Statistical Knowledge, Board Members, Importance of
Statistics.
12
2013
ASA News: Causality in Statistics Education Award 2013 ASA JSM.
12
2013
AMSTAT: Causality in Statistics Education Award 2013 ASA JSM.
12
Big Data and Big Business:
Should Statisticians Join In? By David Walker and Kaiser Fung.
2013 Significance Magazine
12
SIGMAAQL 2013 Newsletter.
Bennet: Writing a math book for the general public.
12 Bayes: Why Bother by
Thomas Louis, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg SPH.
Slides
12 Single World Intervention Graphs
(SWIGS) by James Robbins and Thomas Richardson. NCSU. July 2013.
Created by Miguel Hernán.
Slides
11
Causal Impact: Estimating Causal Effects in Time Series. Google 11/2014
11
SERJ: Call for papers
on Statistical Literacy. 2014 Statistics Education Research Journal.
08
Simpson's Paradox (Problem 30) in Classic Problems in Probability
by Prakash Gorroochurn 2012 Wiley.
08 Top 30 Learning Goals for
Introductory Sociology by Caroline Persell in Teaching Sociology 2010
OnePage List
08 Social Science Reasoning and
Quantitative Literacy Learning Goals by Susan Caulfield & Caroline Persell
in Teaching Sociology 2006
OnePage List
07
Odyssey: A Journey to Lifelong
Statistical Literacy Schield ICOTS 2014
Slides
05 Two Big
Ideas for Teaching Big Data: Coincidence and Confounding by Milo
Schield 2014 ECOTS Webinar.
Slides.
Panel slides
04
Teaching Big Data by
Sigman, DSI Magazine
01
Dynamic Visualization of Economic
Indicators by Katherine Jenny Thompson and Mark E. Wallace. U.S. Census
Bureau. ASA 2013.
01 Fusion
and causal analysis in big marketing data sets by Igor Mandel
ASA 2013.
01 Reality
Checks for a Distributional Assumption: The Case of “Benford’s Law” by
William Goodman ASA 2013.
01 Challenging Statistical Claims in the
Media Course and Gender Effects, Rose MartinezDawson ASA
2013
Abstract
Audio
1up 6up
New Papers Listed in 2013 (By
month added)
09 Statistics Education:
Steadfast or Stubborn? by Milo Schield ASA 2013.
Audio
1up
6up
09
Getting to know your variables:
A critical element of a statistical analysis by
Jane Miller ASA
2013.
Abstract
Audio 1up
6up
09
Key
Components of Numeracy Infusion Course for Higher Education
by
Esther Wilder ASA 2013.
Handout
Abstract 1up
6up
09
Responsible Statistics: Using Statistics to Shape Public Opinion
(6up slides)
by
Andrew Nelson 12/2011.
6up
08 ASA
President's Message: Statistical Literacy and the 2013 Year of International
Statistics by Ruth Carver. 2012.
07 David
Moore Page at StatLit.org with numerous publications.
07 Anne
Hawkins Response to New Pedagogy and New Content by David Moore. ISR,
1997. "I would argue in favour of 'Statistical Literacy for All'..."
06 Statistical
Literacy of Obstetrics Gynecology Residents by
Bretta Anderson, Sterling Williams & Jay Schulkin. J. of Graduate
Medical Education, p 272275. 6/2013.
05 Display
Paired Confidence Intervals using Excel by
Milo Schield, 2013.
1up
6up
05 Odysseys2Sense:
A Startup Guide by
Milo Schield, 2012. 6up
Audio text
05 The
Effects of a Course on Statistical Literacy upon Students' Challenges to
Statistical Claims made in the Media by
Rose MartinezDawson. PhD Thesis. 2010.
05 Bias,
Causality,
Change,
Dichotimization,
Likert and
Visual Analog Scales,
N versus (N1)
Revisited, To pool
or not to pool by
Thomas Knapp 2013.
05 Help
Yourselves (and the Public) Know the Truth by Victor Cohn in
Significance 1999.
04 Statistical
Literacy Serves Police Officers in Many Ways by
Irina Soderstrom
at Eastern Kentucky Univ.
03 Scientific
reproducibility: Begley's Six Rules by
Bruce Booth in Forbes: Pharma and Healthcare. 9/26/2012.
03 A
New Test for Randomness with Application to Stock Market Index Data by
Alicia G. Strandberg and Boris Iglewicz. ASA JSM 2012.
03 A
Closer Look at Air PollutionMortality Relationships for California Members
of the American Cancer Society Cohort by Lipfert and Young, ASA JSM
2012.
03 Developing
a Test of Normality in the Classroom by Jernigan, American Univ.,
Washington DC. ASA JSM 2012.
03
Teaching and Learning Confounding in the
Health Sciences by Felicity Enders, Miranda Kroehl, John McGready,
Rickey Carter. 2012 ASA Proceedings
01 "n"
by Thomas Knapp 2012.
01 Significance
Test, Confidence Interval, Both or Neither? by Thomas Knapp 2013.
01 Reinventing
Business Statistics: Statistical Literacy for Managers by Milo Schield.
MBAAChicago 6up
New Papers Listed in 2012 (By
month added)
12
n by Thomas R. Knapp. Answers to
statistical questions involving "How many...?"
The
"Unknown Student" Survey by Zawojewski, Nowakowski and Boruch.
1987 ASAProceedings
Introducing Probability and Statistics into the English Studies Curriculum
by Goldberg, Zawojewski and Boruch. 1987 ASAProceedings
Romeo and Juliet: Fate, Chance, or Choice. An English Lesson Using
Probability by Zawojewski, Nowakowski and Boruch 1988 TeachingStatistics
Coupling
Literature and Statistics by Borch and Zawojewski. 1988
TeachingStatistics
10
How Economic and Social Statistics became
the Stepchildren of the Profession by Othmar Winkler, ASA.
10
Teaching Quantitative Reasoning Skills: A
Numeracy Infusion Course for Higher Education (NICHE) by Esther Wilder,
ASA, 6up
Handout
10
How I Created a
Trapezoidal Display of Simpson's Paradox, Arjun Tan (Prof Emeritus at
Alabama A&M Univ.)
09
Lost: Assessing Student Basic Survival
Skills in the Statistical Wilderness Using Real Data Marc
Isaacson,
ASA 6up
Abstract
09
How Causal Heterogeneity Influences
Statistical Significance in Clinical Trials Milo Schield,
ASA 6up
08
Teaching Quantitative Reasoning Skills: A Numeracy Infusion Course for Higher
Education (NICHE), Esther Wilder
Abstract
6up
Handout
05 Big Data Creates Beguiling
Coincidences Milo Schield 2012
eCOTS video (5 min draft)
6up
Runs.xls
Clusters.xls
03
Statistical Literacy
in Film Studies I
Statistical Literacy in Film Studies II Dick Redfern blog
03
Learning Statistics through Playing Cards
Tom Knapp 2012
03
Using Pearson
Correlations to teach or learn statistics
Tom Knapp
03
Random
Tom Knapp
02
Teaching Introductory Statistics
and Study Design to Residents in at Teaching Hospital. Lori Lyn Price,
Jessica Paulus and Joan Griffith, 2011 ASA JSM
01
Coincidence in Runs and Clusters.
Milo Schield, 2012 MAA
6up
Runs.xls
Clusters.xls
Bday.xls
Recursion.xls
New Papers Listed in 2011 (By
month added)
12
Teaching Statistics using the News Media,
Paulette Ceesay, 2011 ASA JSM 6up
Popstats books and Statistical Education
 Kaiser Fung, New York Univ. 2011 ASA JSM
1up.
Integrating Quantitative and Financial Literacy
 Joseph Ganem, Loyola Univ., Maryland. 2011 ASA JSM
6up
Learning to Read the Numbers: Critical
Literacy and Numeracy in K8 Classrooms  David and Phyllis Whitin,
Wayne State U.2011 ASA JSM 1up
Assessing
Quantitative Reasoning: What Do Freshmen Know?  Ermine
Faith Orta, Nandini Kannan and Kimberly Massaro, U. Texas San
Antonio. 2011 JSM
6up
10
Teaching Teachers Statistical Literacy
Online,
Milo Schield 2011 National Numeracy Network Conference
6up
09
Statistics and Clinical Trials: Past, Present
and Future  by Herb Weisberg, Correlation Research 2011 ASA
JSM
1up
Teaching the Social Construction of
Statistics,
Milo Schield 2011 IASE Ireland 6up
Epidemiological Models and Spotty Statistics by
Milo Schield 2011 ISI Dublin 6up
Describing Quantitative Relationships Using
Informal Grammar by Milo Schield 2011 ASA JSM 6up
1up
Appendix
WB1
WB2
06
Statistical Literacy: A New Mission for
Data Producers by
Milo Schield Statistical Journal of the IAOS 27 (2011) 173–183
04
Statistics in Society: Three Case Studies by
Tom King
2011 Southampton Univ.
Statistical literacy: ‘familiarity with reading and writing data stories’.
Trout, Catfish
and Roach: a simple, amusing explanation as to how we reach our census
population estimates. 2009 RSS.
2011 UK Census
03
US Supreme Court Brief on
Statistical Significance by
Debra McCloskey and Stephen Ziliak 2011
Comments on WildPfannkuchReganHorton RSS
Paper by
Milo Schield
2011
02
Education Vision by
Royal Statistical Society
2011
Statistical Literacy Summer
Course Online (GST 200 at Augsburg College) by Milo Schield
2011 Annoucement
Syllabus
01
Teaching Statistical Literacy using
Odyssey2Sense (TM): A Unique WebForum by
Milo Schield
2011 MAA. 6up
SchieldCopes Odysseys
Poster
New Listings in 2010 (By
month added)
12
Assessing Students’ Attitudes: The
Good, the Bad, and the Ugly by
Anne Millar and
Candace Schau
2010 ASA.
Why do we study this? Critical Concepts
to Retain from Statistics Class by Kathryn Hall and
Diane K. Michelson
ASA 2010
Reform and Renewal in the Introductory Statistics Courses by
Nancy Leveille, Anna
Simmons and Ron Barnes ASA 2010
Statistical Inference, Statistics Education, and the Fallacy of the
Transposed Conditional by
Andy Neath ASA 2010
10
QL across the Curriculum: Integrating
Skills from English Composition, Mathematics and Substantive Disciplines, Jane Miller
The Educational Forum, 74:
334–46 2010
09
Teaching Statistical Literacy as a
Quantitative Rhetoric Course
by
John Schmit ASA 2010 6up
Statistical Literacy for Managers:
Analyzing Time Series data
by
Anders and Britt Wallgren ASA 2010
6up
Numbers in Everyday Life: A Short Course for
Adults
by
Gerald Hahn, Necip Doganaksoy,
Ricki Lewis, Jane Oppenlander & Josef Schmee
2010 ASA
6up
Probability in Decline
by
Dean Brooks ASA 2010 6up
The Undetectable Difference: An
Experimental Look at the “Problem” of pValues
by
Bill Goodman 2010 ASA 6up
The Social Construction of Rankings
by
Milo Schield ASA 2010 6up
08
Statistics for All — the Flip
Side of Quantitative Reasoning
by
J. Michael Shaughnessy, NCTM President 2010 NCTM.
07
Using media reports to
promote statistical literacy for nonquantitative majors
by
Stephanie Budgett, Maxine Pfannkuch (NZ). 2010 ICOTS8
Luring nonquantitative
majors into advanced statistical reasoning (and luring statistics
educators into real statistics): Nicholson, Ridgway, McCusker. 2010
ICOTS8
Using a Five Step
Framework for interpreting tables and graphs in their contexts:
Marian Kemp and Barry Kissane (AU). 2010 ICOTS8
How we can all learn to
think critically about data: Ian Gordon, Sue Finch (AU). 2010 ICOTS8
05
Ad: Statistical Literacy
Course Online at Augsburg College. Milo Schield, Instructor
Syllabus.
Odyssey Introduction
Interpreting Economic and Social Data: A Foundation of
Descriptive Statistics. Othmar Winkler Springer 2009.
Comments: Keith Ord,
Walter Krämer.
04
AssociationCausation Problems in News
Stories. Milo Schield, Augsburg College. ICOTS8 2010. See
MerriamWebster
(1994): Usage of "times".
03
Interpreting the
Cumulative Frequency Distribution of SocioEconomic Data. Othmar Winkler, Professor emeritus, Georgetown Univ. ASA 2009.
Inference From
Matched Samples in the 2008 U.S. National Elections. Douglas Rivers and
Delia Bailey (YouGov Polimetrix). ASA 2009.
Livening Up the
Introductory Statistics Course with Nontraditional Media Resources
[clickers]. Page Moore, Univ. Arkansas for Medical Sciences. ASA 2009.
Building Bridges: Making Statistical Issues Accessible to the Biomedical and
Translational Researcher. Taylor Pressler, Philip Binkley & Philip
Payne. ASA 2009.
Turning our GAISE
toward Departments of Psychology. Patricia Rutledge, Allegheny College. ASA 2009.
Statistics in the News. Nancy
Reid, Univ. of Toronto. Talk at the Univ. Georgia, April 2009.
1up slides
02
Which is bigger 250 tonnes or 17%: A
tale of salt. Jane Watson and Kim Beswick. AAMT 2009.
01 SIGMAAQL 2009 Survey:
Quantitative
Graduation Requirements at US FourYear Colleges by
Milo Schield at JMM 2010.
6up
Who's
Counting? Opinion
article by
Doug Smith in the LA Times (1/31/2010) with
comments by Steen and Schield.
New Listings in 2009 (By
month added)
12
Quantitative Literacy: An
Imperative for America by Bernie Madison. Slides presented at Ohio State
2009.
On the Importance and Measurement of
PreService Teachers' Efficacy to Teach Statistics 2009
ASA Harrell, Pierce, Sorto, Murphy, Lesser and Enders
The Numbers Guy Index of WSJ
Articles: 20062009.
Developing
statistical literacy with students and teachers in the secondary mathematics
classroom.
2008 Masters Thesis by Phillip Doyle. Waikato U. NZ.
Focus on Basics 2008 9B: Health
& Literacy Partnerships Published by World Education.
11
Numbers in
Everyday Life: A Short Course for Adults by Hahn, Doganaksoy, Lewis,
Oppenlander and Schmee (2009, Amstat News  a longer draft)
Numbers in Everyday Life #1:
Introduction by
Gerald Hahn and Jane Oppenlander. Union College Academy for Life
Long Learning (UCALL, 2008)
Numbers in Everyday Life #2:
Polls in the News by
Joseph Schmee UCALL (2008)
Numbers in Everyday
Life #3: Medical and Health Studies by
Ricki Lewis UCALL (2008)
Numbers in
Everyday Life #4: Numbers in Business and industry by
Necip Doganaksoy UCALL (2008)
Numbers in Everyday Life #5:
Wrap up class by
Gerald Hahn UCALL (2008)
10
Quantitative Literacy across the
Curriculum by Jane Miller (draft) for Educational Forum
Statistical Literacy: Knowing
What's Wheat and What's Chaff by
Chase Brady (2008, Univ West Virginia
at Parkersburg)
09
The Cult of Statistical
Significance by Stephen Ziliak and Deirdre McCloskey
2009 ASA
6up
4up
Spinning Heads and Spinning News: Statistics in the
Media by Rebecca Goldin (George Mason U.) 2009 ASA
6up
Statistical Challenges in Medical Research: What Consumers Need to
Know by Ronald R Gauch (Marist College) 2009
ASA
6up
Distinguishing Association from
Causation in Media Headlines by Milo Schield and Robert Raymond
2009 ASA. 6up
Confound Those Speculative
Statistics by Milo Schield 2009 ASA.
6up
05
Survey of Attitudes Toward Statistics: An
Exploratory Look
by Marjorie Bond 2008 ASA
Common Issues in
SATS Research by Candace Schau 2008 ASA
Students’
Attitudes Toward Statistics: Are there differences among various majors?
by Rebecca Pierce and Molly Jameson 2008 ASA.
The
Assessment of Quantitative Literacy at a Large Public Institution
by Yvette Nicole Johnson and Jennifer Kaplan
2008
CRUME.
04
Understanding the Difficulty in
Teaching Sampling Distribution, Margin of Error and Statistical Inference
by Kriska, Fulcomer & Sass 2008 ASA
Applying
Resampling to Analyze the Sensitivity of a Hypothesis Test to Confounding
by William Goodman 2008 ASA
03
Statistical Significance of
Ranking Paradoxes
by Anna Bargigliotti and Jim Greenwell 2009 MAA JMM
6up
02
Numeracy: Assessing Basic Skills and
Knowledge
by Milo Schield 2009 MAA JMM 6up
Univ.
Texas San Antonio: Quantitative Scholarship  Final Draft
Press
release 2009
01
von Mises' Frequentist Approach to Probability
by Milo Schield and Tom Burnham 2008 ASA
New Listings in 2008 (By
month added)
12
Interpreting the substantive significance of multivariate
regression coefficients
by Jane Miller 2008 ASA
11 Using Simulation to Teach Statistical Literacy
by Marc Isaacson 2008 ASA
10 Just Plain Data Analysis
by Gary Klass 2008 ASA
09
Numbers in the News: A
Survey by Robert Raymond and Milo Schield 2008 ASA Data,
6up and
1up
08
Statistical Literacy Skills Survey
by Milo Schield, 2008 PKALCarleton.
6up slides.
07
Student Attitudes Toward Statistics at Augsburg:
20032004 by Milo and Cynthia Schield 2008 ASA
06
Q/L in America: What Kind, How Much
and Beyond by Bernie Madison
05
Analyzing Numbers in the News: A Structured
CriticalThinking Approach by Milo Schield, 2008 NNN
6up
04
Using Chance Media to Promote Statistical Literacy by J. Laurie Snell,
1999 ASA
03
Quantitative Literacy in America: What
Kind to How Much and Beyond by Bernie Madison,
2008 MAC/QR conference at BMCC
02
Expectations for Statistical Literacy: A
Survey Of College Faculty
by David Kriska (Walden U.),
Mark Fulcomer
(Stockton) & Marcia Sass (UMDNJ) 2007 ASA
01
Including Construction in Quantitative Literacy
by Joel Best 2007 MSS
New Listings in 2007 (By
month added)
12
Building Statistical Literacy Assessment Tools
with the IASE ISLP
by Juana Sanchez. 2007 IASE
11
Assessing Students' Statistical Literacy
by Stephanie Budgett and Maxine Pfannkuch. 2007 IASE
10 Numbers in the News: A
Survey. Milo Schield (Augsburg College) and
Cynthia Schield (Former copublisher of the Napa County Record)
09 Grammar
of Statements Involving "Chance". Milo Schield (Augsburg College) and
Tom Burnham (Cognitive Consulting)
08 Prevarication: Mutual Fund
Studies that Distort Investor's Perceptions. Marshall Schield, President STIR Research (Durango,
CO)
06
Quantitative Literacy
and School Mathematics: Percentages and Fractions, by Milo
Schield, 2007 Wingspread Conference
05
Statistical Literacy: Factual Assessment to Support Hypothetical
Thinking by
Milo Schield, 2007
IASE Satellite Conference, Portugal
04
What do M&M's, dahlias, soil erosion and
data analysis across the curriculum have in common? by Jerry Moreno, 2006
ASA
03
Teaching the Social Construction of Statistics by
Milo Schield, 2007
Midwest Sociological Society, Chicago Slides
4up
02
Expectations for Statistical Literacy: A Comparison among Professions
by Kriska, Fulcomer and Sass. 2006 ASA
01 Pedagogical Challenges of Quantitative Literacy by Bernie Madison,
President of NNN, 2006 ASA
New Listings in 2006 (By
month added)
12 Quirks of Rhetoric: a Quantitative Analysis of
Quantitative Reasoning in Student Writing by Neil Lutsky, 2006 ASA
11
Newsbased Learning and
Statistics by Wing K. Fung and Philip L. H. Yu, 2006 ICOTS
10 Percentage
Graphs in USA Today Snapshots Online by Schield, 2006 ASA
Slides: 6up
09
Enhancing
Statistical Literacy: Enriching Our Society by Katherine Wallman,
1992 Presidential Address, JASA 1993
09
Developing a Compulsory Universitywide Statistical Literacy Program by
Helen Carter and Catherine Milne 2000
Abstract
Conference
08 How did
Teaching Introductory Statistics get to be so Complicated ?!? [slides]
Roxy Peck, USCOTS 2005 6up
1up
06
Presenting Confounding Graphically Using Standardization
by Milo Schield 2006
Draft for Stats magazine
05
Statistical Literacy
Workshop Using a webbased Learning Object by Milo Schield
2006 IASSIST Workshop
Feedback
05
Introduction to an
Online Ratio Statement Validator,
Burnham and Schield, 2006 IASSIST Workshop
02
Exploring Simpson's Paradox
by Larry Lesser NCTM 2001
01
Statistical Literacy Survey Analysis
by Milo Schield 2006
ICOTS7. 6up
Slides.
01
Statistical Literacy Survey
Results by Milo Schield 2006 IASSIST.
International
Statistical Literacy Project (International Association of Statistical Educators)
Leaders
Enhancing Statistical Literacy: Enriching Our Society by Katherine
Wallman, 1992 Presidential Address, JASA 1993
The First R  For Reasoning
by Anne Hawkins (Past Director
of the RSS Centre for Statistical Education) 1997
Teaching Statistical Literacy
by
Dennis Haack in Teaching Statistics, Vol. 1.3, pp 7476
A Note on Teaching Statistical
Literacy by Dennis Haack in Teaching Statistics, Vol. 2.1, pp
2223
David S.
Moore
(Past President of the American Statistical Association)
Statistics and Sound
Bites: Statistical Literacy and the Internet 1999 US Bureau of
the Census
Statistics
Among the Liberal Arts 1998 ASA Presidential Address
JASA
Statistical Literacy and Statistical
Competence in the 21st Century 1997 ASA JSM (slides)
Statistical Literacy and Statistical Competence
in the 21st Century
1998 MSMESB Conference (Abstract)
Statistical Literacy and Statistical Competence
in the New Century 2001 IASE Korea (slides)
Lynn Steen (Past President
of Mathematics Association of America)
Quantitative Literacy: Why
Numeracy Matters for Schools and Colleges. MAA Online
Quantitative Literacy. 2002 Focus, Newsletter of MAA, Feb 2002, Volume
22, #2, pp. 89
Reflections on Quantitative Literacy. 2001 PKAL
The New Literacy in "Why Numbers Count"
Why
Numbers Count: Quantitative Literacy for Tomorrow's America. MAA
1998
Bernie Madison (Founder of
the National Numeracy Network, PastPresident of
the National Council of Education and the Disciplines)
Quantitative Literacy: An
Imperative for America by Bernie Madison. Slides presented at Ohio State
2009.
Q/L in America: What Kind, How Much
and Beyond by Bernie Madison 2008
Evolution
of Numeracy and the National Numeracy Network by Bernard L. Madison
and Lynn Arthur Steen, Numeracy, Vol. 1 (2008), Issue 1, Article
2.
Abstract: The
National Numeracy Network grew from heightened awareness of the complex
and sophisticated nature of quantitative literacy and the resulting need
for interdisciplinary attention to education for quantitative literacy
in schools and colleges. This complexity and sophistication applies
especially to the US where it is fueled by an agile economy and the
needs of a democratic society. This paper describes the environment
surrounding the National Numeracy Network’s establishment, some of its
activities, and some complementary and synergistic actions by other
professional societies. The paper concludes with a sample of
quantitative literacy programs in colleges and universities
Pedagogical Challenges of Quantitative Literacy.
2006 ASA. Slides
6up
Building
Bridges for QL: NNN & SIGMAA QL. MAA News May
2005
What is a Course in QL?
2005 NNN Newsletter
News Math Course Description and
Procedures 2005 Univ. Arkansas.
Posted on NNN website.
Quantitative
Literacy Based on presentation at 2005 MAA QL SIG
Important Math Concepts
for Numeracy Based on presentation at 2005 MAA
Educating
for Numeracy. 2002 Notices of the American Mathematical Society
Richard Scheaffer (PastPresident
of the American Statistical Association in 2001)
Statistics and
Quantitative Literacy from "QL: Why Numeracy
Matters for Schools and Colleges" 2003 MAA Online.
Also
Quantitative Literacy and Statistics. 2001
AmStat News, Nov. 293,
President's Column
Joel Best
(University of Delaware): Author of "Damned Lies and Statistics"
and "More Damned Lies and Statistics."
Birds  Dead
and Deadly: Why Quantitative Literacy needs to Address Social Construction 2008
Numeracy, Volume 1. Issue 1, Article 6.
Including
Construction in Quantitative Literacy 2007 Midwest Sociology
Society (MSS)
People Count: The Social
Construction of Statistics 8/2002 ASA JSM
People Count: The Social
Construction of Statistics 11/2002 Talk at Augsburg College
Although the two with the same title are similar, the latter focuses more on the future of
Statistical Literacy.
Peter Holmes (Sr.
Researcher, RSS Centre for Statistical Education, Nottingham
Trent Univ.)
Statistical Literacy, Numeracy and
the Future. Talk at Augsburg College 31 March 2003
Statistical Needs of
NonSpecialists Young Workers. RSS Centre
(1981)
Iddo Gal
(former codirector of the Numeracy Project at the National Center for
Adult Literacy)
Preparing for Diversity in Statistical Literacy by Scott Murray
and Iddo Gal, ICOTS6 2006
Big
Picture: What
does 'Numeracy" Mean? GED Items published by the Educational
Testing Service
Functional demands of Statistical Literacy: Ability to read press
releases from statistical agencies IASE Berlin 2003
Expanding
Conceptions of Statistical Literacy: Analysis of Products from
Statistical Agencies, Statistics Educ. Research Jrnl,
2(1) 2003
Gal, I. (2002). Dispositional aspects of coping with
interpretive numeracy tasks. Literacy and Numeracy Studies, 11(2),
4761.
Numeracy
Assessment Framework for Adult Literacy and Lifeskills Survey by
Iddo Gal, Mieke van Groenestijn, Myrna Manly,
Mary Jane Schmitt and Dave
Tout.
ALL Survey, National Center Educational Statistics,
2003
Teaching for Statistical
Literacy and Services of Statistical Agencies, The American
Statistician, 2003, Vol. 57 #2, pp 8084. Detailed review
below.

Adults’
Statistical Literacy: Meaning Components & Responsibilities. International
Statistical Review, Vol. 70, #1, April 2002, pp 125 "This
paper concerns itself with people's ability to act as effective
"data consumers" in diverse life contexts that for brevity are
termed here Reading contexts. Reading contexts
should be distinguished from enquiry context where people
(e.g., students, statisticians) engage in empirical investigation of
actual data." This article proposes a
conceptualization of statistical literacy and describes its key
components including the ability to interpret, critically evaluate,
and communicate about statistical information and messages. Despite
its title, this article is very relevant to statistical literacy at
all levels. “It is argued that statistically literate behavior is
predicated on the joint activation of five interrelated knowledge
bases (literacy, statistical, mathematical, context, and critical),
together with a cluster of supporting dispositions and enabling
beliefs. Educational and research implications are discussed,
and responsibilities facing educators, statisticians, and other
stakeholders are outlined.” (p. 1 of article). Note:
Because of the importance of this article to the International
Statistical Literacy Project, the ISI Permanent Office and the author
have given permission to have a copy of the article available.
2000: Statistical
literacy: Conceptual and instructional issues by Iddo Gal in D. Coben,
J. O'Donoghue, & G. FitzSimons, (Eds.), Perspectives on Adults
Learning Mathematics (pp. 135150). London: Kluwer Academic
Publishers.
Gal, I. (2000). The numeracy challenge. In I. Gal (Ed.),
Adult Numeracy Development: Theory, research, practice (pp. 931).
Monitoring Attitudes and Beliefs in Statistics
Education by Gal, Ginsburg & Schau, Assessment Challenge in Stats
Education 3754 1997
Gal, I. (1999) Conceptualizing
Statistical Literacy: An Assessment Perspective.
SRTL1
Gal, I. (1999). Links between literacy and numeracy. In
D. A. Wagner, B. Street, & R. L. Venezky (Eds.), Literacy: An
international handbook (pp. 227231). Boulder, CO: Westview Press.
Gal, I and J. Garfield. "Curricular
Goals and Assessment Challenges in Statistics Education"
The Assessment Challenge in Statistics Education
Gal, Iddo and Ashley
Stoudt. "Numeracy: Becoming Literate With Numbers." Adult Learning, 9:2
(1997) 13.
Gal, I., &
Baron, J. (1996). Understanding repeated simple choices. Thinking and
Reasoning, 2(1), 118.
Gal, I.,
Ginsburg, L., & Schau, C. (1997). Monitoring attitudes and beliefs in
statistics education. In I. Gal & J. B. Garfield (Eds.), The assessment
challenge in statistics education (pp. 3751). Amsterdam: IOS Press.
Gal, I.,
Mahoney, P., & Moore, S. (1992). Children's use of statistical terms. In
W. Geeslin & Graham K. (Eds.), Proceedings of the 16th annual meeting of
the International Group for Psychology in Mathematics Education (Vol. 3,
p. 160). Durham, New Hampshire.
Jane Watson (author of
Statistical Literacy at School)
Awards
Website
Statistical literacy in the middle school: The relationship between
interest, selfefficacy and prior mathematics achievement.
Colin Carmichael, R. Callingham,
I Hay,
J. Watson.
Australian Journal of Educational & Developmental Psychology. Vol 10,
2010, pp. 8393.
Measuring
Middle School Students' Interest in Statistical literacy.
Colin Carmichael, R. Callingham, I Hay, J. Watson. Math Ed
Research Jrnl V22, N3, 11/2010.
Creating a Measure of Middle School
Students' Interest in Statistical Literacy: Is it Possible?,
Mathematics Education Research Journal V22, N3, Nov. 2010.
Factors Influencing the Development of Middle School Students' Interest
in Statistical Literacy Colin Carmichael, R. Callingham, J. Watson,
I Hay. SERJ 2009.
Creating a Measure of Middle School
Students' Interest in Statistical Literacy: Is it Possible?, Pacific Rim
Objective Measurement Symposium, 2009,
Hong Kong, pp. 15. ISBN 008044184X
Which is bigger 250 tonnes or
17%: A tale of salt. Jane Watson and Kim Beswick AAMT 2009
Sample, Random and Variation: The Vocabulary of Statistical Literacy by Watson
& Kelley. International Journal of Science and Mathematics Education 2007/8
Statistical
Literacy in Middle Schools. Jane Watson ICOTS 2006
Measuring
Statistical
Literacy (Abstract) Rosemary Callingham and Jane Watson 2005
Journal of Applied
Measurement.
Statistical
Literacy: From Idiosyncratic to Critical Thinking. Watson &
Callingham. 2004 IASE Roundtable, 47 pages [6 levels]
The Measurement of Student's Understanding of Statistical Variation.
(Abstract) Watson, Kelley, Callingham & Shaughnessy 2004
Is Statistical Literacy Relevant for Middle School? Jane
Watson 2004
The Development of Comprehension of Chance Language:
Evaluation and Interpretation.
J. Watson, J. B. Moritz. School Science
and Mathematics. 2/2003
The
Vocabulary of Statistical Literacy. Jane Watson and Ben Kelley
AARE 2003
Statistical Literacy: A complex hierarchical concept
Jane Watson and Rosemary Callingham SERJ 2003 [Six levels]
Statistical Literacy at the School Level: What Should Students Know and
Do? Jane Watson IASE 2003
Development of Understanding of sampling for statistical literacy
Watson and Moritz Jrnl. of Mathematical Behavior 2000
The
Beginning of Statistical inference: Comparing Two Data Sets
(Abstract) Watson and Moritz Educational Studies in Math
1998
Assessment
of Statistical Understanding in a Media Context Jane Watson
ICOTS 1998
The Need for Statistical
Literacy in Australia by Jane Watson Science News 1997
The
role of statistical literacy in decisions about risk: Where to start in
For the Learning of Mathematics, 18(3), 2527. 1998
Assessing statistical literacy using the media
in Gal & Garfield (Eds.) The Assessment Challenge in Stat Education (pp. 107121).
1997
Statistical literacy: A link
between
mathematics and society in A.
Richards, G. Gillman, K. Milton, & J. Oliver (Eds.), Flair: Forging
links and integrating resources (Proceedings of the 15^{th}
Biennial Conference of the Australian Association of Mathematics
Teachers Inc., pp. 1228). Adelaide, SA: AAMT, Inc. [1995 Hanna
Neumann Memorial Lecture].
Conditional probability: Its
place in the mathematics curriculum. Mathematics Teacher, 88,
1217. 1995
OTHER
(1995 and prior)
A model for assessing higher order
thinking in statistics
Cautionary Tales: A Collection of
Mathematical Essays for Teachers
Children's understanding of luck
Developmental structure in the
understanding of common and decimal fractions
Probability and statistics: An overview
Professional Development in Mathematics
for Teachers  Who, What, Why and How
Teacher attitudes towards chance and
data
The developments of concepts associated
with sampling in grades 3, 5, 7, and 9
Visual Processing During Mathematical
Problem Solving
What's in a graph?
Jerry Moreno (John Carroll
University)
What do M&M's, dahlias, soil erosion and
data analysis across the curriculum have in common?. 2006 ASA
What defines a "Statistically Literate" citizen. 2005 USCOTS
Concepts and
Methods in One Intro Stats Course. 2004 ASA
Toward a Statistically Literate Citizenry: What Statistics Everyone
Should Know. ICOTS6 2002
Statistical
Literacy  Statistics Long After School. ICOTS5 1997
Deborah Rumsey (Ohio State
University)
“Statistical Literacy: Implications for
Teaching, Research, and Practice,” 2002 International Statistical
Review, 70, 32–36.
“Statistical
Literacy as a Goal for Introductory Statistics Courses,” Journal of
Statistics Education, 2002. 10(3)
Neil Lutsky and Nathan Grawe (Carleton
College, US)
“Assessing Quantitative Reasoning in
Student Writing: A QuIRKy Experience,” Nathan Grawe,
2008
New England Educational Assessment Network.
6up
Quirks of Rhetoric: a Quantitative Analysis of
Quantitative Reasoning in Student Writing. Neil Lutsky (Carleton
College)
Milo Schield,
Director of the W. M. Keck
Statistical Literacy Project
Papers chronologically
Papers by Topic
Talks by location
Statistical Literacy: An overview
Statistical Literacy: More Detail
Statistical Literacy: Summary
statistics in the everyday media
Statistical Literacy: Surveys and
Assessment
Statistical Literacy: Teaching
Statistical Literacy: Teaching
using Odyssey
Statistical Literacy: Social
Construction of Statistics
Statistical Literacy: Speculative
statistics; spotty statistics
Statistical Literacy: Confounding
Statistical Literacy and Statistics: Curriculum
Statistical Literacy: Describing and Comparing Ratios
using Rates,
Percentages and Chance
Statistical Literacy: Webbased Tools to
help students use ordinary English correctly to describe and compare
ratios
Statistical Literacy: Algebra of Association, Spuriousity and Reversal (Schield &
Burnham)
Statistical Literacy: Chance and Inferential Statistics
Statistical Literacy:
Miscellaneous, Policy Proposals and Grant Applications
Statistical Literacy: Reports
Statistical Literacy: Posters, Brochures
and Proposals
Statistical Literacy: Excel
spreadsheets and associated slides
Statistical
Literacy: Video
Statistical
Literacy: Talks with Audio:
 "A Second Statistics Course is Needed: What
should it be?" ECOTS 2012 by Marc Isaacson and Milo Schield
Audio
Slides
Abstract

"Big Data Generates Beguiling Coincidences" ECOTS
2012 by Milo Schield
Audio
Slides
Abstract
Statistical Literacy: Talks
without a paper. Just PowerPoint slides or posters. By Schield
unless otherwise noted.

2017 IQ and Gender. Cynthia and Milo Schield.
Critical Thinking Club (CTC).
Slides

2017 Down Syndrome: By Birth Order and Mom's Age.
3/20/2017
Slides
PPTX
XLSX

2016 Why Election Polls Are Often Wrong
Slides. Schield
CTC 12/4/2016. Why Clinton Lost (Trump Won)
Slides,
Exit Poll Data.
Calculate
Chance of Winning

2015 What's Wrong with Into Stats by Milo Schield
StatChat 10/27/2015
PPTX
Gaise Update

2015 Hot Hand: Better than Chance by Milo Schield
Univ. of St. Thomas Fall 2015. Slides
PPTX

2015 Comments on Cobb and De Veaux at USCOTS by Milo
Schield. USCOTS 2015
1up 6up
PPTX

2015 Statistics for Managers. By Milo Schield 2015.
Draft for ASA.
6up 1up
Univ.
St. Thomas 10 year history of enrollment in statistics

2015 Making Connections. Comments by Milo Schield.
USCOTS 2015. Slides

2015 StatisticallySignificant Shortcuts. By
Milo Schield. StatChat1 Feb 24, 2015
Slides
PPTX

2015 Augsburg's AboveAverage ValueAdded Education.
By Milo Schield. Presented to Augsburg Faculty 2/17/2015. Food
for Thought.
Slides

2015 Teaching for Transfer in Statistics Classrooms.
By Mathew D. Beckman, Feb 24, 2015 StatChat, Macalester, St. Paul.
Slides.

2015 StatisticallySignificant Shortcuts. By Milo
Schield Feb 24,
2015 Statchat Macalester, St. Paul.
Slides
PPTX

2014 Business Analytics vs. Data Science. By Milo
Schield Nov 2014 DSIMSMESB Tampa, FL. Invited Talk
Slides.
PPTX

2014 Big Data and Coincidence. By Milo Schield Oct 2014 NNN1 invited
workshop at Carleton College.
Slides.

2014 Explore LogNormal Distribution of
Incomes. By Milo Schield Oct 2014 NNN2
Invited Workshop at Carleton College.
Slides,
Spreadsheet
PDF of spreadsheet
PPT

2014 Create Distributions Empirically using Excel. Schield Oct 2014 NNN3 Invited Workshop at Carleton
College.
Slides
PPT

2014 StatisticallySignificant
Correlations. Milo Schield Oct 2014 NNN4 Invited Workshop at Carleton
College. Slides

2014 Segmented Linear Regression. By
Milo Schield 2014 NNN5 Invited Workshop at Carleton College.
Slides.
 2014 Two Big Ideas in Teaching Big data.
Milo Schield talk at the Twin Cities ASA Chapter at Augsburg
College on March 20, 2014.
6up
1up.
 2013 Adding Context to Introductory Statistics.
Milo Schield talk at the Twin Cities Chapter of the ASA held at Augsburg
College on May 22, 2013. 6up
1up
PPT.
 2012 Victor Cohn (19192000): A Retrospective: Milo
Schield talk
at the Twin Cities Chapter of the ASA held at Augsburg College on
Oct 14, 2012. 6up
 2012 Keene State College Workshop:
1 Statistical Literacy
6up; 2 Critical Thinking
6up; 3 Coincidence
6up; 5 Reading Tables and
Graphs 6up;
6
Reading Graphs and Tables 6up;
7 Statistical Literacy and Mathematics
6up; 8 Statistical
Literacy: Confounding 6up.
May 1517, 2012.
 2012 Coincidence in Run and
Clusters. 6up
1up. StatChat
and ASA Chapter Meetings. Macalester College, St. Paul., MN.
3/8/2012.
 2012 Statistical Literacy: A
MathStat Alternative
6up
1up.
T3Conference, Chicago 3/2/2012
 2012 Statistical Literacy for All
6up
1up.
Statistical Literacy at Augsburg
6up
1up.
Lehman College 2/24/2012

Modeling in Context:
Teaching Adjustment and Confounding through the Common Core
Standards. Poster, Milo Schield and Daniel Kaplan.
USCOTS 2011

Where Do Statistics Come
From?  Setting the Table for Introductory Statistics.
Poster, Marc Isaacson at USCOTS
2011
 Multiple Choice: Olympic
Success. USCOTS Activity
6up Marc
Isaacson 2011
 Hypothetical Thinking about
Statistics: An Activity. USCOTS
6up 2011

Odysseys Teach Critical
Thinking. Poster, Augsburg College with Larry Copes.
5/10/2011.
 Statistical Literacy:
Confounding. University of Texas, San Antonio
1/13/2011 6up
 Statistical Literacy
Worldwide: 2010. 1/6/2011 MAA JMM
6up
 Statistical Literacy:
Confounding. University of St. Thomas 12/10/2010
6up
1up
 Quantitative Literacy
Today: An Update. CarletonPKAL conference. 10/08/2010
6up.
 Statistical Literacy at
Augsburg College. CarletonPKAL conference. 10/09/2010
6up
 Science Literacy Requires Statistical Literacy
11/09 SENCER Symposium 6up
 Statistical Literacy and Liberal Education
7/09 Free Minds '09 6up
 Poster:
Several
Radical Ideas to Help Students Interpret Introductory Statistics
6/09 Brick & Schield USCOTS
Small Poster. (Large: 3' x 4')
 Speculative Statistics and Public Policy.
5/2009 NNN conference Univ. Washington, Bothell
6up

Statistical Literacy: A New OnLine Gen Ed Course
for Math Teachers 2/09 Proposal for 2009 AMATYC
 Statistical Literacy talks at
Anderson
University 6up and at the
Univ. of Kentucky
(Lexington) 6up. 10/08
 Confounder Influence on Attributed Cases, 7/2008.
MAA MathFest. Madison, WI 6up
1up
 Binary Confounders as Mathematical Objects, 7/2008.
European Conference on Methodology. Oviedo Spain
6up
 Bayes' Comparisons 1/2008 StatChat, Macalester College (St.
Paul, MN) 6up
1up.
 Civic Engagement: Numbers in the News
10/2007 AACU
Civic Learning at the Intersections, Denver CO
6up
1up
 Quantitative Literacy Core Concepts 10/2007 Carleton
QUIRK Project 6up
1up
 Teaching Statistical Literacy 4/2007 National Numeracy
Panel, Midwest Sociological Society Chicago
6up
 Statistical Literacy: An Introduction. 8/2006
Univ. Connecticut 6up
1up
 Statistical Literacy for Majors without Math Requirements. 3/2006
Univ. Wisconsin QL Conference
6up
1up
 Mathematics of Association in Quantitative Literacy. 1/2006 MAA
6up
 Statistical Literacy: Errors Reading Graphs. 12/2005 Kansas City
Actuarial Club 6up
 Statistical Literacy and Critical Thinking, 7/2005 TOC Summer
Seminar at Union College 6up
 Statistical Literacy and Epidemiological Reasoning, 7/2005 TOC
Summer Seminar at Union College
1up
6up
 Quantitative Literacy: Core Concepts, 6/2005 MAA QL Workshop at
Macalester College 6up
1Up
Notes
 2002 Statistical Literacy Survey,
5/2003 IASSIST Conference. 1up
6up
 Statistical Literacy at Augsburg,
March 2003 Project Status.
1up,
6up
 Proposed Survey of Business Statistics
Teachers, 8/2002 MSMESB
6up
1up
 Student Difficulties Reading Tables of Ratios.
12/2001 US Bureau of Census
6up
 Statistical Literacy: How Does It Relate to
Quantitative Literacy. PKAL Snowbird, UT 7/2001.
Abstract,
6up,
1up
 Effectiveness of Statistics in Schools of
Business. 6/2001 MSMESB Troy NY
1up
 The Grenada Conjectures: The Future of
Statistical Education. University of Grenada Jan 18, 2001.
1up 6up

Application for ASA/NSF/BLS/Census
Research Program 12/2000
 Teaching Conditional Thinking Using Ratios.
Western Conference on Teaching Statistics (WCTS1) 3/2000
Notes
 Teaching Statistics Using Relevant Data.
Western Conference on Teaching Statistics (WCTS1) 3/2000
6up
 Grammar of Statistics: Rates, Percentages and
Risk. 3/2000 Augsburg College
6up
 Statistical Literacy: Numbers as Information.
Wendy Treadwell UMn 2/2000
6up
 Statistical Literacy: Standards for Content.
11/1999 AMATYC 6up
 Statistical Literacy: Reading Rates and Percents.
10/1999 APDU 6up
W. M. Keck Statistical Literacy Project at Augsburg
College (20012005):
Statistical Literacy
Sessions (1998  2013) organized by
Milo Schield@Augsburg
2013 Statistical Literacy #16 (ASA, Montreal)
Organizer and chair: Milo Schield (50 attendees)
The Relevance of Rhetoric to Statistical Literacy,
Joel Best
Abstract
2012 Statistical Literacy #15 (ASA, San Diego CA) Organizer and chair: Milo Schield
(5060 attendees)
Is Statistical Literacy at
Risk with Common Core Standards? Kathryn Hall
Abstract
6up
2011 Statistical Literacy (ISI, Dublin, Ireland) STS08. Organizer and chair: Milo Schield
Making Sense of Statistical
Studies, Roxy Peck 6up
Statistics in the News, Nancy Reid
and JeanFrançois Plante
Multivariate Thinking in
Precollege Social Sciences, James Nicholson
ISI
News 6up
2011 US Supreme Court: Statistical Significance not
necessary for Causation. LateBreaking Session (ASA, Miami FL). Chair: Milo Schield
6up 1up
Stephen T. Ziliak 1up, Joseph "Jay" Kadane, Donald Rubin and Daniel Kaplan
1up
2011 Statistical Literacy #14 (ASA, Miami FL). Organizer and chair: Milo Schield
(5060 attendees)
2010 Statistical Literacy #13 (ASA, Vancouver CA). Organizer and chair: Milo Schield
(90 attendees)
2010 Statistics for NonQuantitative
Majors (ICOTS8 in Ljubljana, Slovenia) Organizer and chair: Milo Schield
Using media reports to
promote statistical literacy for nonquantitative majors Stephanie
Budgett, Maxine Pfannkuch (NZ).
6up
Luring nonquantitative
majors into advanced statistical reasoning; luring statistics
educators into real statistics James
Nicholson, Jim Ridgway, Sean McCusker
Using a Five Step
Framework for interpreting tables and graphs in their contexts
Marian Kemp and Barry Kissane (AU)
6up
How we can all learn to
think critically about data Ian Gordon, Sue Finch
(AU) 6up
AssociationCausation Problems in
News Stories. Milo Schield, Augsburg College.
ICOTS8 2010. See also
MerriamWebster
(1994): Usage of "times".
2009 Statistical Literacy #12 (ASA, Washington DC). Organizer and chair: Milo Schield
(130 attendees)
Know Your Chances: Curriculum to Help Students Be
Better Consumers of Statistics
Steven Woloshin, Lisa Schwartz (Dartmouth)
2up
2009 Numeracy (ASA, Washington DC). Organizer: Milo Schield. Chair: Paul J. Fields
Confound those
Speculative Statistics Milo Schield (Augsburg) 6up
Distinguishing Association from Causation in
Media Headlines. Milo Schield (Augsburg) and
Robert Raymond (St. Thomas)
6up
Formal Debates to
Clarify the Objectives of an Intro Stats Course. Dan Schafer (Oregon State,
Author of the Statistical Sleuth): 4up
See also the Vaccination Debate
4up.
How Prepared are Doctoral Dissertation
Committees? Rossi
Hassad (Mercy College)
Taking Confounding Seriously with
Introductory Students. Daniel Kaplan (Macalester
College)
2008 Statistical Literacy #11 (ASA, Denver, CO). Organizer: Milo
Schield. Chair: Larry Lesser (70 attendees)
Interpreting the substantive significance of multivariate
regression coefficients. Jane Miller (Rutgers University). 1up slides.
Just Plain Data Analysis. Gary Klass (Illinois State University). 6up slides
Using Simulation to Teach Statistical Literacy.
Marc Isaacson, W. M. Keck Statistical Literacy Project.
6up
slides.
Numbers in the News: A
Survey. Robert Raymond and Milo Schield, W. M.
Keck Statistical Literacy Project. Data,
6up and
1up
von Mises' Frequentist Approach to Probability. Milo Schield
and Tom Burnham, W. M. Keck Statistical Literacy Project.
6up
Student Attitudes Toward Statistics at Augsburg:
20032004. Milo and
Cynthia Schield, W. M. Keck Statistical Literacy Project.
6up
2007 Statistical Literacy #10 (ASA, Salt Lake City, UT). Chair: Paul J. Fields
Statistics for Innumerate Journalists.
Stephen Doig, Walter Cronkite Professor of Journalism (Arizona
State Univ.)
Slides
4up
See
also
Reporting with the Tools of Social Science. Nieman Foundation,
Harvard (2008)
Quantitative Reasoning: An ActivityBased Course. Kay
Somers (Moravian College) 6up
Grammar
of Statements Involving "Chance". Milo Schield (Augsburg) and Tom Burnham (Cognitive Consulting)
6up
1up
Numbers in the News: A Survey. Milo Schield (Augsburg) &
Cynthia Schield (Former copublisher of the Napa County Record)
6up,
1up,
Data
2006 Statistical and Quantitative Literacy #9 (ASA, Seattle, WA)
Organizer and chair: Milo Schield
Pedagogical Challenges of Quantitative Literacy.
Bernie Madison, President of the National Numeracy Network. Slides
6up
Increasing Quantitative Literacy through the Mathematics
across the Community College Curriculum Project.
Rebecca Hartzler (Seattle Community College) and Kim Rheinlander
(Dartmouth).
6up
Quirks of Rhetoric: a Quantitative Analysis of
Quantitative Reasoning in Student Writing. Neil Lutsky (Carleton
College)
Common Misconceptions in Statistical Literacy.
Marc Isaacson (Augsburg
College) 6up
Percentage Charts in USA Today Snapshots Online.
Milo Schield
(Augsburg College) Print version.
6up
2005 Statistical Literacy #8 (ASA, Minneapolis, MN). Organizer and chair: Milo Schield
(90 attendees)
What Can 'CSI' Teach
Us about Statistical Literacy Jane
Miller (Rutgers University)
Epidemiology for Teaching
Statistics Chris Olsen (Cedar Rapids Iowa schools)
Toys,
Tales and a Journalist's View of Statistics Lewis Cope
(coauthor of News and Numbers)
Statistical Literacy:
An Online Course
at Capella University Marc Isaacson (Augsburg College)
Online Ratio Statement Validator,
Burnham and Schield, Slides
6up 1up
Statistical Literacy and Chance,
Milo Schield (Augsburg College) Slides 6up
1up
2004 Statistical Literacy #7 (ASA, Toronto, Canada). Organizer and
chair: Milo Schield
Teaching Statistical Principles using Epidemiology,
Donna Stroup (CDC)
Planning a Statistical
Literacy Course Robert Hayden (Plymouth State University)
Statistics for Political
Science Majors Gary Klass (Illinois State University)
ConfounderResistance
and Confounder Intervals for a Binary Confounder, Schield &
Burnham Slides 1up
6up
Reviewer Brian Jersky ASA 2004
2003 Statistical Literacy #6 (ASA, San Francisco, CA) Organizer
and Chair: Milo Schield
Understanding Scientific Reasoning, Ronald Giere (U. Mn) & Leslie
Burkholder (Canada)
Journalism, Computer Assisted Reporting and Statistical Literacy,
Brant Huston (Director IRE: Investigative Reporters and Editors)
Subjective Statistical
Inference Based On Pure Associations Robyn M. Dawes (Carnegie
Mellon)
Review of Statistical
Literacy Course Design at Augsburg: 20022003 Julie Naylor &
Bill Jasperson (Augsburg)
ConfounderInduced Spuriosity and Reversal: Algebraic Conditions for
Binary Data, Schield & Burnham Slides
1Up
6Up
2002 Statistical Literacy #5 (ASA, New York City, NY). Organizer
and Chair: Milo Schield
Using Quantitative
Data to Study Social Phenomena: Some Ignored Issues Stanley
Lieberson (Harvard)
People Count: The Social
Construction of Statistics Joel Best (University of
Delaware)
Bag of Tricks for Teaching Statistics, Andrew Gelman (Colombia)
The Mission of STATS, S. Robert Lichter, President
of STATS (Presented by Ian Murray)
Algebraic Relationships in 2x2 Tables, Schield & Burnham Original
ASApublished version,
Updated version
[Original is not original]
2001 Statistical Literacy #4 (ASA, Atlanta, GA) Organizer and
Chair: Milo Schield
The Tyranny of Numbers, Nicholas Eberstadt (AEI:
American Enterprise Institute)
More Guns; Less Crime. John Lott (University
of Chicago and Yale)
StudentCentered Education, Deborah Rumsey
(University of Ohio)
A PostModern View of Statistical Education,
Gudmund Iversen (Swarthmore College)
Statistical Literacy: Reading Tables of Rates and
Percentages, Milo Schield (Augsburg College)
Jenkins Appendix version
2000 Statistical Literacy #3 (ASA, Indianapolis, IN) Organizer and
Chair: Milo Schield
Thinking Big About Statistics. John Bailar
III (Univ. Chicago) See Excerpts from "A
Larger Perspective"
CrossLevel Inference as an Identification Problem.
W. Phillips Shively (Univ. Minnesota)
A Case Story in the Teaching of Observational Studies.
Chamont (Weihong) Wang (College of New Jersey)
A First Year Interdisciplinary QR
Course: A PreStatistics Course Jabon and Narasimhan (De Paul
U)
Teaching Statistics For Use In Epidemiology
Joe H. Abramson (Hebrew University)
Statistical Literacy: Describing and
Comparing Rates and Percentages Milo Schield (Augsburg College)
6up
1999 Critical Thinking in Observational Studies #2 (ASA, Baltimore, MD)
How to Help Reporters Tell The Truth
Victor Cohn (Former Washington Post Science editor)
Population Growth and Propensity: Complex Observational Studies.
Thomas Wonnacott (Canada)
Teaching Causal Inference in Experiments
and Observational Studies
Donald Rubin (Harvard)
Simpson's Paradox and Cornfield's Conditions,
Milo Schield (Augsburg College)
Discussant/Reviewer: Gudmund Iversen
1998 New Directions in Introductory Statistics #1 (ASA, Dallas, TX).
Organizer and Chair: Milo Schield
Statistics for First Year Liberal Arts Students Gary Smith
(Pomona College)
Educating Everyone: Statistical Methods and
Statistical Literacy. Jessica Utts (U. California, Davis)
* Teaching Statistics Without Formulas.
Gudmund Iversen (Swarthmore) See Why
Should We Even Teach Statistics? A Bayesian Perspective
Eight Features of an Ideal Introductory Statistics
Course. Donald Macnaughton (Toronto)
Statistical Literacy and Evidential Statistics,
Milo Schield (Augsburg College)
1up
* Hard copy available
Donna Stroup, Richard Goodman, Ralph Cordell and Richard Scheaffer
Teaching Statistical Principles Using Epidemiology. The
American Statistician
2004 (Pay Access)
From Abstract: "we argue that epidemiology, the scientific basis
for public health, provides a useful and motivating
context for teaching statistical principles
and methods and suggest that
examples from this and other public
health sciences
be used in the teaching of mathematics and science
courses in high school and college."
Related papers involving "Statistical Literacy":
Organizing Data in Tables and Charts: Different Criteria for Different
Tasks. Jane Miller, Teaching Statistics (Fall, 2007)
Briggs'
QL/QR Site
William Briggs, coauthor of Statistical Reasoning for Life
How did Teaching Introductory
Statistics get to be so Complicated ?!?
Roxy Peck, USCOTS 2005 1upWeb
Data Aggregation and Simpson's Paradox in Index Numbers
(Fee) Stan Lipovetsky & Micheal Conklin,
Eur. J. of Op. Res., 172#1. 2004
Three Paradoxes
Howard Wainer, Nat. Bd of Medical Examiners. Draft of Paper for The American Statistician 2004
Statistical Literacy  A Kind of Numeracy by Laszlo Holka (Hungarian Central Statistical Office)
Introductory Statistics
Teaching at UCLA: Overview and Proposal by Jan De Leuw and Donald Ylvisaker
Developing a Compulsory Universitywide Statistical Literacy Program by
Helen Carter and Catherine Milne 2000
Abstract
Conference
Teaching Statistical Literacy by Patricia B. Cerrito 1999
Epidemiology Faces Its
Limits (copy)
by Gary Taubes: Science (1995: 269. pp 164169).
BiostatisticsWisconsin.
The Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology
(STROBE) Statement: Guidelines for Reporting Observational Studies
by Erik von Elm.
Instructional Design and the Development of Statistical Literacy Kenneth
Bessant in Teaching Sociology, April 1992
Related papers at ASA JSM 2008:
Common Issues in
SATS Research by Candace Schau 2008 ASA
Survey of Attitudes Toward Statistics: An
Exploratory Look
by Marjorie Bond 2008 ASA
Students’
Attitudes Toward Statistics: Are there differences among various majors?
by Rebecca Pierce and Molly Jameson 2008 ASA
Understanding the Difficulty in
Teaching Sampling Distribution, Margin of Error and Statistical Inference
by Kriska, Fulcomer and Sass 2008 ASA
Applying
Resampling to Analyze the Sensitivity of a Hypothesis Test to Confounding
by William Goodman 2008 ASA
Related papers at ASA JSM 2007:
Expectations for Statistical Literacy: A
Survey Of College Faculty
by David Kriska (Walden U.),
Mark Fulcomer
(Stockton) & Marcia Sass (UMDNJ), 2007 ASA
Students’ Reasoning about Summary
Measures from Histograms and StemandLeaf Plots by
Linda Cooper and
Felice Shore (Towson University), 2007 ASA
Improving Statistical Posters by
Di Cook (Iowa State University), 2007 ASA
Related papers at IASE 2007
Guimarães, Portugal.
Assess Statistical Literacy
by Stephanie Budgett and Maxine Pfannkuch. 2007 IASE
Building Statistical Literacy Assessment Tools
with the IASE ISLP
by Juana Sanchez. 2007 IASE
Designing Open Questions
for the Assessment of Conceptual Understanding
by Nick Broers. 2007 IASE
Embedding
Statistical Assessment within CrossCurricular Materials
by Jim Ridgway, James Nicholson and Sean McCusker 2007 IASE
Assessing Understanding of the Concept of Interaction in Analysis of
Variance
by Kathy Green 2007 IASE
Using Peer Assessment of Project
Presentations to Develop Skills as Consumers of Statistical Information
by Michelle Sisto. 2007 IASE
Doing Statistics versus
Understanding Statistics
by Christine Duller 2007 IASE/ISI
Related papers at ICOTS7 2006
Brazil:
The Worth of Data: The Tale of an Experience for Promoting and Improving
Statistical Literacy, Giovanni Barbieri and Paola Giacché
Related papers at ASA JSM 2006:
Expectations for Statistical Literacy: A Comparison among Professions
by Kriska, Fulcomer and Sass. 2006 ASA
Related papers at ASA JSM 2005:
Matching with Multiple Control Groups,
and Adjusting for Group Differences by Rubin and Stuart 2005 ASA
Direct and Indirect Effects by Judea
Pearl 2005 ASA
Comments on the Papers
Presented in the Session on Causal Inference with Problematic Control
Groups by Gastwirth 2005 ASA
Critical Values:
Connecting Ethics, Service Learning and Social Justice to Life Our World
by Lesser
2005 ASA
Reflections on Training,
Experience and Introductory Statistics: A Mini Survey of Tertiary Level
Statistics Instructors Hassad 2005 ASA
Examining the
Introductory Statistics Course for Business and Economics Through Its
Textbooks by McKenzie 2005 ASA
Related papers at USCOTS 2005:
Are We Teaching the Right Material in Introductory Statistics? by
Jerry Reiter. 2005 USCOTS
What defines a "Statistically Literate" citizen? by Jerry Moreno.
2005 USCOTS
Statistics in the News by E. Jacquelin Dietz. 2005 USCOTS
Related papers at ISI 55 (2005):
UIS: Measuring Statistical Literacy by
Denise Lievesley, 2005 ISI
Statistics for Life: What Statistical
Ideas Matter Most and Why? by
Nick Fisher, 2005 ISI
Assessing statistical literacy in
graduate level statistics education by
Enriqueta D. Reston, 2005 ISI
Numeracy Counts in the
Statistical Reasoning Equation by Therese Wilson and Helen
MacGillivray, 2005 ISI
Nonspecialist Users and their Information Needs: Exploratory study at
US Bureau of Labor Statistics by Iddo Gal & John Bosley, 2005 ISI
The Role
of Official Statistics Agencies in the Promotion of Statistical Literacy
Among Students by
Fredrick W H Ho, 2005 ISI
Related papers at ASA JSM 2004:
Conveying the Core Concepts by
John D. McKenzie, ASA 2004
Trashball: A Logistic
Regression Classroom Activity by Christopher Morell and Richard
Auer, ASA 2004
Using Journal Articles in
Introductory Statistics by John Turner ASA 2004
History of Science and Statistical
Education: Examples from Fisherian and Pearsonian schools by Chung Ho
Yu (Alex) Arizona State,
ASA 2004
Related papers at ASA JSM 2003:
Student Attitudes: The
Other Important Outcome in Statistical Education by Candace Schau
ASA 2003
Some Difficulties Learning
Histograms by Carl Lee and Maria MeletiouMavrotheris ASA 2003
Teaching Introductory
Statistics in the Social & Behavioral Sciences by Hassad ASA 2003
Restructuring
Introductory Courses at Penn State
by Harkness, Buchanan, Heckard and Rosenberger ASA 2003
Related papers at IASE 2001:
Statistical
Literacy and Statistical Competence in the New Century by David
Moore IASE 2001 Slides
Statistics Literacy by Brian
Phillips IASE 2001 Slides
Related papers at ISI 2001:
Statistical Dead Heat and the Mass Media Douglas Lonnstrom
(Siena College in Loudonville NY), 2001 ISI
Introductory Statistics Courses for NonStatistics Majors
at Colleges and Universities by P. K. Ito,
2001 ISI.
Larry
Lesser
Donald Macnaughton
(MatStat Research Consulting, Toronto Canada)
Statistical Literacy and Reasoning: American Educational
Research Association, April, 2000
Components of
Statistical Thinking by
Beth Chance
(Calif.
Polytechnic State University)
Bayesian
Statistics:
Dean
Brooks, President of Ekaros.
Practical Applications of Benford's
Law for Integer Quantities ASA 2002 JSM
War, Politics and Customer Loyalty:
Forecasting Benford's Law 2001 Frequencies
Edward Tufte
Statistical Literacy Programs or Ideas
WEB SOURCES ON CHANCE AND DATA ANALYSIS:
BOOKS
ORGANIZATIONS:
International Association
for Statistical Education
Statistical
Literacy and the Media by
Podehl ICOTS6 2002
Statistics in the Classroom: Learning to Understand Societal Issues by
Podehl IASE Berlin 2002
Teaching Economic Statistics in the Internet Era by Bregar
IASE Berlin 2002
Woodrow Wilson Foundation, National Council on Education,
Quantitative Literacy
Reflections on Quantitative Literacy by
Lynn Steen
July, 2001
Reflections on Quantitative Literacy (Getting To Work)
by
Bernie Madison MAA 7/2001
National Council of
Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM)
Mathematics Necessary?
by William Dudley, March 1998 (Start on Page 2)
Mathematics Equals Opportunity
by Richard Riley, March 1998 (Start on Page 3)
Mathematics Association of
America (MAA)
Mathematics For Business
by Richard Thompson, Arizona State University, 11/2002
Assessment of General Education Mathematics Courses’ Contribution to
Quantitative Literacy. By
Aimee J.
Ellington for MAA SAUM
Center for Disease Control
(CDC)
International Statistical
Institute (ISI)
International Statistical Review
(ISR)
CONFERENCES
JOURNALS
Statistical Education Research Journal
(IASE)
The American Statistician
(TAS)
2003, Vol. 57 #2

Statistical Literacy: How You Can Help by
Jessica Utts. Abstract
Excerpts:
"To me, statistical literacy has been achieved when someone not
only understands a news story about a statistical study, but also
knows what additional information about the study is needed before a
wise decision can be made. And ultimately, the goal of achieving
statistical literacy is to be able to make wise decisions when
appropriate information is provided."

What Educated Citizens Should Know About Statistics and Probability by
Jessica Utts
Abstract
Excerpts:
"There are of course many important topics that need to be
discussed in an elementary statistics course. For this article, I
have selected seven topics that I have found to be commonly
misunderstood by citizens, including the journalists who present
statistical studies to the public." "1. When it can be concluded
that a relationship is one of cause and effect, and when it cannot,
including the difference between randomized experiments and
observational studies. 2. The difference between statistical
significance and practical importance, especially when using large
sample sizes. 3. The difference between finding “no effect” or
“no difference” and finding no statistically significant effect or
difference, especially when using small sample sizes. 4.
Common sources of bias in surveys and experiments, such as poor
wording of questions, volunteer response, and socially desirable
answers. 5. The idea that coincidences and seemingly very
improbable events are not uncommon because there are so many
possibilities. 6. “Confusion of the inverse” in which a conditional
probability in one direction is confused with the conditional
probability in the other direction. 7. Understanding that
variability is natural, and that 'normal' is not the same as
'average.'"

Teaching for Statistical Literacy and Services of Statistical
Agencies by
Iddo Gal
Abstract: Increasing attention
is given to the importance of developing statistical literacy of
citizens and students. This article examines approaches to teaching
for statistical literacy and identifies areas that need attention,
in light of limitations on skill transfer and reliance on exemplars
that illustrate problematic reports in the media. The article
discusses the potential role of products of statistics agencies in
education for statistical literacy. Implications for needed
collaboration between educators and statistics agencies and for
research are examined. Excerpts: [1] "For
instance, in a survey of more than 240 instructors of introductory
statistics (Garfield 2000) less than 25% said they “frequently used”
discussions of statistics in the media, and roughly half indicated
they never
ask students to critique
news articles in classroom assessments. It seems that many
instructors neither teach for statistical literacy nor assess it."
[2] Discussion: "First, it is difficult to expect students to develop
statistical literacy through instruction on general principles of
statistics and personal experience in data analysis, due to
limitations on skill transfer, lack of familiarity with critical
questions, and inattention to dispositions that support
statistically literate behavior. Second, it is difficult to expect
students to develop full statistical literacy through instruction
that presents only negative examples for statistical reports, that
is based only on brief media reports, and that does not provide
models for effective or fair statistical reporting." [3]
"Given the limitations of each of the methods outlined earlier, and
the inattention to assessment of statistical literacy skills
(Garfield 2000), educators and statisticians should reexamine their
educational expectations regarding the efficacy of current efforts
to develop statistical literacy skills of students at the college or
highschool levels. It also seems prudent to consider Moore’s (2001)
recent call for “diminished expectations,” a proposal that
instructors in introductory statistics courses cannot teach all the
topics they hope to cover, given the need to teach at a pace and
depth that enable students to construct their own understanding. If
Moore’s call is accepted, serious attention to statistical literacy
issues (in terms of both skills and dispositions) cannot be
accomplished within an introductory course focused on core
statistical topics, unless educators find ways to (a) address both
core issues and statistical literacy issues at the same time, and
(b) also assess students’ actual gains in statistical literacy
skills. Otherwise, statistical literacy will remain a lofty goal
that is hardly realized in regular introductory courses. Where
this is the case, separate courses focused on statistical literacy
will have to be planned."

The Getting of Wisdom:
Educating Statisticians to Enhance their Clients Numeracy
by Eric Sowey
Abstract Excerpts: "Neglect
of numeracy is becoming steadily more unsupportable, particularly in
a democratic society." "Enhancing statistical literacy is today a
pressing issue." "It is my impression, however, that even in
developed societies formal teaching aimed expressly at enhancing
statistical literacy is still a fledgling enterprise, offered only
in scattered locations and to relatively few people."
1998, Vol. 52

Student Projects on Statistical Literacy and the Media by
Gelman and Nolan with Bautista, Men and Warmerdam.
Articles
Introduction: An important theme in an
introductory statistics course is the connection between statistics
and the outside world. This article describes some assignments that
have been useful in getting students to learn how to gather and
process information presented in the newspaper articles and
scientific reports they read. We discuss two related assignments.
For the first kind of assignment, students work through prepared
instructional packets. Each packet contains a newspaper article that
reports on a scientific study or statistical analysis, the original
report on which the article was based, a worksheet with guidelines
for summarizing the reported study, and a series of questions. In
the second kind of assignment, each student is required to find a
newspaper article themselves, track down the original report,
summarize the study using our guidelines, and write a critique of
the article. Here, we describe the guidelines we developed to help
the student in reading the newspaper article and original source,
and the procedures we used for each type of assignment. Examples of
handouts and assignments appear as appendixes.
ASA Journal
of Statistical Education (JSE)
JSE 2004
#10
JSE 2002
#10
JSE 2000 #8
JSE 1999 November
JSE 1999 July

Constructionism and Reductionism: Two Approaches to
ProblemSolving and Their Implications for Reform of Statistics and
Mathematics Curricula by Emmanuel N. Lazaridis, H. Lee Moffitt Cancer
Center & Research Institute, University of South Florida

Getting What You Pay For: The Debate Over Equity in Public School
Expenditures by Deborah Lynn Guber, The University of Vermont
JSE 1999 April
JSE 1998 July
JSE 1998 March
JSE 1997 November
JSE 1997 July
JSE 1997 March
JSE 1996 November
JSE 1996 July
JSE 1996 March
JSE 1995 July
JSE 1995 March
JSE 1994 November
JSE 1994 July
JSE 1993 November
ASA Presidential papers:
http://client.norc.org/asapresidentialpapers.info/4_sub2.htm
Jane Watson (author of
Statistical Literacy at School). Full references on papers
referencing "statistical literacy" or "quantitative literacy."

Watson, J.M., & Kelly, B.A. (in press). The development of
conditional probability reasoning.
International Journal of Mathematical Education in Science and
Technology.

Watson, J.M. (2006). Issues for statistical literacy in the middle
school. In A. Rossman & B. Chance (Eds.), Proceedings of the
Seventh International Conference on Teaching Statistics: Working
cooperatively in statistics education, Salvador, Brazil. [CDRom].
Voorburg, The Netherlands: International Association for Statistical
Education and the International Statistical Institute.

Watson, J.M. (2006). Statistical literacy at school: Growth and
goals. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum. ISBN 0808553987

Watson, J.M., Kelly, B.A., & Izard, J.F. (2005). Statistical
literacy over a decade.
In
P. Clarkson, A. Downton, D. Gronn, M. Horne, A. McDonough, R.
Pierce, & A. Roche (Eds.), Building connections: Theory, research
and practice (Proceedings of the 28th annual conference of the
Mathematics Education Research Group of Australasia, Melbourne, pp.
775782). Sydney: MERGA.

Watson, J.M., & Callingham, R.A. (2005).
Statistical literacy: From idiosyncratic to critical thinking.
In G. Burrill & M. Camden (Eds.), Curricular Development in
Statistics Education. International Association for Statistical
Education (IASE) Roundtable, Lund, Sweden, 2004 (pp. 116162).
Voorburg, The Netherlands: International Statistical Institute

Watson, J.M. (2005). Assessing teachers’ knowledge for teaching
quantitative literacy. Proceedings of the ICMI Third East Asian
Conference on Mathematics Education. [CD ROM]. Shanghai, China.

Watson, J.M. (2005). Is statistical literacy relevant for middle
school students? Vinculum, 42(1), 310.

Watson, J.M. (2005). Lessons from research: Students’ understanding
of statistical literacy. In M. Coupland, J. Anderson, & T. Spencer
(Eds.), Making mathematics vital (Proceedings of the 20^{th}
biennial conference of the Australian Association of Mathematics
Teachers, Sydney, pp. 253260). Adelaide, SA: AAMT, Inc. ISBN
1875900586

Callingham, R.A., & Watson, J.M. (2005). Measuring statistical
literacy. Journal of Applied Measurement, 6(1), 1947.

Watson, J.M., & Shaughnessy, J.M. (2004). Proportional reasoning:
Lessons from research in data and chance. Mathematics Teaching in
the Middle School, 10, 104109.

Watson, J.M. (2004). Quantitative literacy in the media: An arena
for problem solving. Australian Mathematics Teacher, 69(1),
3440.

Watson, J.M., & Kelly, B.A. (2003).
The vocabulary of
statistical literacy. In Educational Research, Risks, &
Dilemmas: Proceedings of the joint conferences of the New Zealand
Association for Research in Education and the Australian Association
for Research in Education [CDROM]. Auckland, New Zealand,
December, 2003. Available at: http://www.aare.edu.au/03pap/alpha.htm

Watson, J.M., & Kelly, B.A. (2003). Inference from a pictograph:
Statistical literacy in action. In L. Bragg, C. Campbell, G.
Herbert, & J. Mousley (Eds.), Mathematics education research:
Innovation, networking, opportunity (Proceedings of the 26^{th}
Annual Conference of the Mathematics Education Research Group of
Australasia, Geelong, pp. 720727). Sydney, NSW: MERGA.

Watson, J.M., & Callingham, R.A. (2003).
Statistical literacy: A complex hierarchical construct.
Statistics Education Research Journal, 2(2), 346.

Watson, J.M. (2003). Statistical literacy at the school level: What
should students know and do? In Bulletin of the International
Statistical Institute 54th Session Proceedings Berlin (Volume
LX, Book 2, Invited Papers, Topic 49, pp. 6871). Berlin: ISI.

Watson, J.M., & Moritz, J.B. (2002). Quantitative literacy for
preservice teachers via the internet. Mathematics Teacher
Education and Development, 4, 4356.

Watson, J.M., & Moritz, J.B. (2002). Developing concepts of sampling
for statistical literacy. In J. Sowder & B. Schappelle (Eds.),
Lessons learned from research (pp. 117124). Reston, VA:
National Council of Teachers of Mathematics.

Watson, J.M. (2002). Discussion: Statistical literacy before
adulthood. International Statistical Review, 70,
2630.

Callingham, R.A., & Watson, J.M. (2002, December).
Implications of
differential item function in statistical literacy: Is gender still
an issue? Refereed paper presented at the Measurement
Special Interest Group of the Australian Association for Research in
Education conference, Brisbane.

Watson, J.M., & Moritz, J.B. (2000). Development of understanding of
sampling for statistical literacy. Journal of Mathematical
Behavior, 19, 109136.

Watson, J.M. (1999). The media, technology and statistical literacy
for all. In Z. Usiskin (Ed.), Developments in school mathematics
education around the world. Volume 4 (pp. 308322). Reston, VA:
National Council of Teachers of Mathematics. [Refereed text of
invited address at international conference.]

Watson, J.M., Moritz, J.B., & PereiraMendoza, L. (1998).
Interpreting a graph in a social context. The Mathematics
Educator, 3 (1), 6171.

Watson, J.M. (1998). Statistical literacy: What’s the chance?
Reflections, 23(1), 614. [Text of invited keynote to
1997 MANSW State conference]

Watson, J.M. (1998). Assessment of statistical understanding in a
media context. In L. PereiraMendoza, L.S. Kea, T.W. Kee, & W. Wong
(Eds.), Statistical education – Expanding the network
(Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Teaching
Statistics, Vol. 2, pp. 793799). Voorburg: International
Statistical Institute.

Watson, J.M. (1998). The role of statistical literacy in decisions
about risk: Where to start. For the Learning of Mathematics,
18(3), 2527.

Watson, J.M. (1997). Assessing statistical literacy using the media.
In Gal & Garfield (Eds.), The Assessment Challenge in Statistical
Education (pp. 107121).

PereiraMendoza,
L., Watson, J. M., & Moritz, J. B. (1995). What's in a graph? In A.
Richards, G. Gillman, K. Milton, & J. Oliver (Eds.), Flair: Forging
links and integrating resources (pp. 301307). Adelaide, SA:
Australian Association of Mathematics Teachers. Abstract:
What do students really think graphs
mean? Based on interviews with students from Canada, Australia and
Singapore, students' interpretations of different graphs are
examined, and the implications of these differing interpretations
for teaching are considered. Some examples of the potential of
newspapers for developing statistical ideas for primary and
secondary students are included

Watson, J.M. (1995). Statistical literacy: A link between
mathematics and society. In A. Richards, G. Gillman, K. Milton, & J.
Oliver (Eds.), Flair: Forging links and integrating resources
(Proceedings of the 15^{th} Biennial Conference of the
Australian Association of Mathematics Teachers Inc., pp. 1228).
Adelaide, SA: AAMT, Inc. [1995 Hanna Neumann Memorial
Lecture].

Watson, J.M. (1995).
Conditional probability:
Its place in the mathematics curriculum. Mathematics Teacher,
88, 1217.
Weinberg, Clarice R. (1993).
Toward a Clearer
Definition of Confounding [Scan]. American Journal of
Epidemiology. Vol 137, Number 1, Jan 1, 1993. 
